Balls are engineered objects made of rubber or animal skin with a spherical or oval shape that are often used for various ball sports and team sports. With functions that vary between different sporting competitions, players might kick, throw, or hit a ball in order to earn a goal, or points, in order to beat the opponent. The Ancient Greeks and Egyptians used balls primarily for play, but today balls serve a myriad of functions beyond sports as ball-bearings, exercise balls, and toys. Adults and children worldwide use balls in order to participate in a sport or simply for entertainment, and exercise. The ball is one of the most fundamental physical forms and has universal appeal to people of all ages and backgrounds.

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Balls

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American Football
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Length: 11.0" | 27.9 cm
Circumference: 22.0" | 55.9 cm
Diameter: 5.5"-6.3" | 14-16 cm

Materials: Leather (cow hide)

Drawings include:
American Football side elevation

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Ping Pong Balls
Drawing with dimensions for diameter and circumference of a Table Tennis | Ping Pong ball with three-stars

Table Tennis | Ping pong balls are spherical polymer balls fabricated specifically for the sport. Established under international rules at a diameter of 1.57” | 40 mm (circumference of 4.94” | 125.6 mm) and mass of .095 oz| 2.7 g, ping pong balls are colored as either white or orange depending on the table surface and game style. White balls are official tournament balls and pair well with blue or green tables, while orange balls are used for casual games as they are easier to see in most settings. Table tennis balls are rated with a star system to denote quality—one star being the softest and easiest to break while three stars is the most durable and approved for tournament play. The official table ping pong ball has changed over the years from a composition of celluloid to polymer and from a size of 1.5” | 38 mm to 1.57” | 40 mm.

Table Tennis | Ping pong balls are spherical polymer balls fabricated at a diameter of 1.57” | 40 mm (circumference of 4.94” | 125.6 mm) and mass of .095 oz| 2.7 g. White balls are official tournament balls, while orange balls are used for casual games as they are easier to see in most settings.

Ping Pong Balls
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Diameter: 1.57” | 40 mm
Circumference: 4.94” | 125.6 mm
Mass: .095 oz | 2.7 g
Material: Polymer (previously celluloid)
Color: White or orange

Drawings include:
Table Tennis | Ping Pong Ball plan/elevation

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Volleyball
Dimensions of a volleyball measuring circumference and diameter

Volleyballs are spherical balls made of leather or synthetic leather used to play the sport of volleyball. Volleyballs are regulated with circumferences between 25.6”-26.4”| 65-67 cm, weights of 9.2-9.9 oz | 260-280 g, and must maintain an internal pressure of 0.30–0.325 kg/cm2. The diameter of a volleyball is between 8.15”-8.4” | 20.7-21.3 cm.

Volleyballs are spherical balls made of leather or synthetic leather used to play the sport of volleyball. Volleyballs are regulated with circumferences between 25.6”-26.4”| 65-67 cm, weights of 9.2-9.9 oz | 260-280 g, and must maintain an internal pressure of 0.30–0.325 kg/cm2.

Volleyball
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Circumference: 25.6”-26.4” | 65-67 cm
Diameter: 8.15”-8.4” | 20.7-21.3 cm
Weight: 9.2-9.9 oz | 260-280 g
Pressure (Internal): 4.3-4.6 psi | .30–.33 kg/cm2
Material: Leather, synthetic leather

Drawings include:
Volleyball elevation

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Football | Soccer Balls
Diagram comparing Football | Soccer ball Sizes 1-5 sized for the maturity of players at various ages and skills

Footballs (Soccer balls) come in a series of successive sizes. The underlying reason for the variety of different soccer ball sizes is for the smooth and safe development of young players as they grow in skill and age. Set by the football federations around the world, using smaller ball sizes for younger players reduces the risk that the ball would hurt them during play. Matching the appropriate ball size to the age of the player is safer on a players body as they may injure their ligaments and tendons by kicking a larger ball before their body has matured. Compare the various sizes here to help determine which official football (soccer ball) size is right for you.

Illustration comparing the ages and types of players for each sequential football | soccer ball size
Footballs (soccer balls) come in a series of successive sizes. The underlying reason for the variety of different soccer ball sizes is for the smooth and safe development of young players as they grow in skill and age.

Illustration comparing the ages and types of players for each sequential football | soccer ball size
Football | Soccer Balls
Height:
27”-28” | 68-70 cm
Width:
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8.6”-9” | 22-23 cm
Weight:
14-16 oz | 400-450 g
Area:

Size 5 (Adult): Ages 13+
Size 4 (Youth):
 Ages 8-12
Size 3 (Junior):
 8 and under
Size 2 (Mini-Ball/Skills Ball):
 4 and under
Size 1 (Mini-Ball/Skills Ball):
 All ages
Pressure: 8.5-15.6 psi

Materials
Synthetic leather around rubber bladder

Drawings include:
Football | Soccer Ball Size 5, Size 4, Size 3, Size 2, Size 1

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Basketball
Dimensioned drawing showing the circumference and diameter of a professional Basketball

Basketball sizes come in variations for different ages, genders, and level of play. The official NBA and competitive professional basketball is 29.5” | 74.9 cm in circumference with a diameter between 9.43”-9.51” | 24-24.2 cm. Professional basketballs must be inflated to a pressure between 7.5-8.5 PSI and cannot exceed the maximum weight of 22 ounces. When choosing a basketball, consider whether the play environment will be primarily outdoor or indoor because indoor basketballs perform best as full-grain leather constructions and outdoor basketballs are better as rubber.

Basketball sizes come in variations for different ages, genders, and levels of play. The professional NBA basketball is 29.5” | 74.9 cm in circumference with a diameter between 9.43”-9.51” | 24-24.2 cm. Basketballs have a pressure between 7.5-8.5 PSI and cannot exceed a weight of 22 ounces.

Basketball
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Circumference: 29.5” | 74.9 cm
Diameter: 9.43”-9.51” | 24-24.2 cm.
Pressure: 7.5-8.5 PSI
Weight: 22 ounces (maximum)
Material (Indoor): Full-grain leather
Material (Outdoor): Rubber

Years Active

Drawings include:
Basketball elevation

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