A group is a term used to describe a number of people or things that are placed, found, or classified together. As everyday forms of physical relationships between multiple people, group spatial dynamics are best witnessed in common public settings such as queuing lines, elevators, waiting areas, public transportation, and other spaces that require the sharing of space between strangers. The distances and proximity between people in group settings directly impacts one’s individually perceived level of physical and psychological privacy, safety, security, and happiness.

There are many different terms for describing groups, depending on the context. For example, a group of doves would be called a flock, a group of lions would be called a pride, and a group of humans who are related to each other would be called a family. Oftentimes, the term group implies that the people or things being grouped together are connected to each other in some way, though this is not always the case.

Why do people group together?

People group together as groups generally constrain, guide, and sustain humans. When people join a group, it satisfies the human need to belong, gain information, have a sense of self, and achieve goals. Groups are also important to society as a lot of important work is done by groups rather than individuals.

What are focus groups?

A focus group is a gathering of diverse people who participate in a facilitated discussion to gain feedback about a topic or area of interest. These discussions are typically held in an area that is non-threatening and are guided. Focus groups are not like interviews, but allow members to interact and influence each other during the discussion.

What are interest groups?

Interest groups, also known as pressure groups, are a group of individuals or organizations that are typically formally organized to influence public policy in their favor. All interest groups strive to affect government policy to benefit themselves or their cause. Interest groups generally try to achieve their goals by lobbying.

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Sitting - Criss-Cross Applesauce - Kids (Front)

Criss-cross Applesauce, a nursery rhyme phrase referring to sitting cross-legged on the floor, is a popular sitting style used in school environments when gathering students in groups for exercises and reading. Replacing the long-used and politically incorrect ‘Indian Style’ phrase in educational settings, Criss-cross Applesauce is a familiar and common posture that helps students gather and focus students for learning. Kids should not sit in Criss-cross Applesauce position for too long or they may have pains or develop poor posture.

Drawing of a group of boys sitting in criss-cross applesauce position
Criss-cross Applesauce, a rhyme referring to sitting cross-legged on the floor, is a popular sitting style used in school environments when gathering students in groups for exercises and reading. Criss-cross Applesauce is a familiar and common posture that helps bring together and focus children.

Drawing of a group of boys sitting in criss-cross applesauce position
Sitting - Criss-Cross Applesauce - Kids (Front)
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Sitting Style: Criss-Cross Applesauce
Attire: Casual/School
Ages: 4-6

Drawings include:
Children | Kids Sitting Front elevation, front (outline)

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Wheelchair Users - Back

Collection of male and female wheelchair users drawn from the back elevation. Including multiple user positions, these back elevations of wheelchair users can be used to provide scale and context when meeting and designing required accessible widths in spaces.

Wheelchairs have a standard overall width of 25” (63.5 cm) and seated users range in height from 48”-53” (122-135 cm).

Drawings of male and female Wheelchair Users viewed from the back profile
Collection of male and female wheelchair users drawn from the back elevation. Including multiple user positions, these back elevations of wheelchair users can be used to provide scale and context when meeting and designing required accessible widths in spaces.

Wheelchairs have a standard overall width of 25” (63.5 cm) and seated users range in height from 48”-53” (122-135 cm).

Drawings of male and female Wheelchair Users viewed from the back profile
Wheelchair Users - Back
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Wheelchair Width: 25” | 63.5 cm
Height (Human Sitting Overall): 48”-53” | 122-135 cm

Drawings include:
Wheelchair Users back elevation (male and female)

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Human Spacing - Queuing
Side elevation drawing dimensioning various types of human spacing of Spacing - Queue Space

Queuing is adjustable depending on the need for efficiency or perceived comfort of people in line. A spacing of 6”-8” (15.2-20.3 cm) between people leads to greater efficiency, a spacing of 12”-14” (30.5-35.6 cm) is commonly used, and a queuing spacing of 18”-22” (45.7-55.9 cm) offers a greater degree of comfort.

Queuing is adjustable depending on the need for efficiency or perceived comfort of people in line. A spacing of 6”-8” (15.2-20.3 cm) between people leads to greater efficiency, a spacing of 12”-14” (30.5-35.6 cm) is commonly used, and a queuing spacing of 18”-22” (45.7-55.9 cm) offers a greater degree of comfort.

Human Spacing - Queuing
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Efficient Spacing: 6”-8” | 15.2-20.3 cm

Typical Spacing: 12”-14” | 30.5-35.6 cm

Comfortable Spacing: 18”-22” | 45.7-55.9 cm

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Gender
Age

Drawings include:
Human Spacing - Queuing diagrammatic side elevation

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Wheelchair Users - Front

Mixed assortment of drawings of male and female wheelchair users as viewed from a front elevation. Sitting in varied postures from active to passive, these front elevations of wheelchair users are helpful when illustrating and demonstrating required widths of spaces that account for accessibility.

Wheelchairs have a standard overall width of 25” (63.5 cm) and seated users range in height from 48”-53” (122-135 cm).

Collection of drawings of male and female Wheelchair Users illustrated from the front
Mixed assortment of drawings of male and female wheelchair users as viewed from a front elevation. Sitting in varied postures from active to passive, these front elevations of wheelchair users are helpful when illustrating and demonstrating required widths of spaces that account for accessibility.

Wheelchairs have a standard overall width of 25” (63.5 cm) and seated users range in height from 48”-53” (122-135 cm).

Collection of drawings of male and female Wheelchair Users illustrated from the front
Wheelchair Users - Front
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Wheelchair Width: 25” | 63.5 cm
Height (Human Sitting Overall): 48”-53” | 122-135 cm

Drawings include:
Wheelchair Users front elevation (male and female)

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Sitting - Children (Back)

Assortment of boys and girls sitting as seen from the back profile. Children are always moving between various sitting positions at home or at school as they play and learn. Naturally taking on postures that are comfortable to their bodies, children most commonly sit in positions that include: Criss-cross applesauce (legs crossed), legs in front, legs to the side, on their knees, or W position. W Sitting, when a child sits on their butt with their knees bent and feet angled outward, is known to put your child at risk for injuries and limited core strength and flexibility and should be corrected whenever possible.

Drawing of a group of boys sitting in a row in back elevation
Assortment of boys and girls sitting as seen from the back profile. Children are always moving between various sitting positions at home or at school as they play and learn. Children sitting positions include: Criss-cross applesauce, legs in front, legs to the side, on their knees, or W position.

Drawing of a group of boys sitting in a row in back elevation
Sitting - Children (Back)
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Sitting Style: Criss-Cross Applesauce, legs behind, legs to side
Attire: Casual/School
Ages: 4-6

Drawings include:
Children | Kids Sitting Back elevation, back (silhouette)

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