A group is a term used to describe a number of people or things that are placed, found, or classified together. As everyday forms of physical relationships between multiple people, group spatial dynamics are best witnessed in common public settings such as queuing lines, elevators, waiting areas, public transportation, and other spaces that require the sharing of space between strangers. The distances and proximity between people in group settings directly impacts one’s individually perceived level of physical and psychological privacy, safety, security, and happiness.

There are many different terms for describing groups, depending on the context. For example, a group of doves would be called a flock, a group of lions would be called a pride, and a group of humans who are related to each other would be called a family. Oftentimes, the term group implies that the people or things being grouped together are connected to each other in some way, though this is not always the case.

Why do people group together?

People group together as groups generally constrain, guide, and sustain humans. When people join a group, it satisfies the human need to belong, gain information, have a sense of self, and achieve goals. Groups are also important to society as a lot of important work is done by groups rather than individuals.

What are focus groups?

A focus group is a gathering of diverse people who participate in a facilitated discussion to gain feedback about a topic or area of interest. These discussions are typically held in an area that is non-threatening and are guided. Focus groups are not like interviews, but allow members to interact and influence each other during the discussion.

What are interest groups?

Interest groups, also known as pressure groups, are a group of individuals or organizations that are typically formally organized to influence public policy in their favor. All interest groups strive to affect government policy to benefit themselves or their cause. Interest groups generally try to achieve their goals by lobbying.

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Human Spacing - Queuing
Side elevation drawing dimensioning various types of human spacing of Spacing - Queue Space

A queue space is a first-come, first-served area where people gather and wait for goods or services. Some typical applications include public transportation stations and terminals, large stores and supermarkets, and banks and post offices. Formalized queue areas are often organized by railings and can offer shelter from the elements; Disney Parks are a prime example.

To make the time in a queue more enjoyable, in-line entertainment and secondary queue areas may be added. To expand the capacity of the queue, planners may increase the length, increase the size of the lanes, or increase the length by designing the line in a serpentine shape.

Queuing is adjustable depending on the need for efficiency or perceived comfort of people in line. A spacing of 6”-8” (15.2-20.3 cm) between people leads to greater efficiency, a spacing of 12”-14” (30.5-35.6 cm) is commonly used, and a queuing spacing of 18”-22” (45.7-55.9 cm) offers a greater degree of comfort.

A queue space is a first-come, first-served area where people gather and wait for goods or services. Some typical applications include public transportation stations and terminals, large stores and supermarkets, and banks and post offices.

Queuing is adjustable depending on the need for efficiency or perceived comfort of people in line. A spacing of 6”-8” (15.2-20.3 cm) between people leads to greater efficiency, a spacing of 12”-14” (30.5-35.6 cm) is commonly used, and a queuing spacing of 18”-22” (45.7-55.9 cm) offers a greater degree of comfort.

Human Spacing - Queuing
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Efficient Spacing: 6”-8” | 15.2-20.3 cm

Typical Spacing: 12”-14” | 30.5-35.6 cm

Comfortable Spacing: 18”-22” | 45.7-55.9 cm

Clothing Style
Gender
Age

Drawings include:
Human Spacing - Queuing diagrammatic side elevation

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Wheelchair Users - Back

Collection of male and female wheelchair users drawn from the back elevation. Including multiple user positions, these back elevations of wheelchair users can be used to provide scale and context when meeting and designing required accessible widths in spaces.

Wheelchairs have a standard overall width of 25” (63.5 cm) and seated users range in height from 48”-53” (122-135 cm).

Drawings of male and female Wheelchair Users viewed from the back profile
Collection of male and female wheelchair users drawn from the back elevation. Including multiple user positions, these back elevations of wheelchair users can be used to provide scale and context when meeting and designing required accessible widths in spaces.

Wheelchairs have a standard overall width of 25” (63.5 cm) and seated users range in height from 48”-53” (122-135 cm).

Drawings of male and female Wheelchair Users viewed from the back profile
Wheelchair Users - Back
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Wheelchair Width: 25” | 63.5 cm
Height (Human Sitting Overall): 48”-53” | 122-135 cm

Drawings include:
Wheelchair Users back elevation (male and female)

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Wheelchair Users - Front

Mixed assortment of drawings of male and female wheelchair users as viewed from a front elevation. Sitting in varied postures from active to passive, these front elevations of wheelchair users are helpful when illustrating and demonstrating required widths of spaces that account for accessibility.

Wheelchairs have a standard overall width of 25” (63.5 cm) and seated users range in height from 48”-53” (122-135 cm).

Collection of drawings of male and female Wheelchair Users illustrated from the front
Mixed assortment of drawings of male and female wheelchair users as viewed from a front elevation. Sitting in varied postures from active to passive, these front elevations of wheelchair users are helpful when illustrating and demonstrating required widths of spaces that account for accessibility.

Wheelchairs have a standard overall width of 25” (63.5 cm) and seated users range in height from 48”-53” (122-135 cm).

Collection of drawings of male and female Wheelchair Users illustrated from the front
Wheelchair Users - Front
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Wheelchair Width: 25” | 63.5 cm
Height (Human Sitting Overall): 48”-53” | 122-135 cm

Drawings include:
Wheelchair Users front elevation (male and female)

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Standing - 6 Year Olds (Front)

Collection of assorted 6 year old boys and girls in front elevation with various casual standing postures and clothing. Helpful for understanding the height of 6 year old children when designing spaces such as learning environments, classrooms, and play areas for kids, these scaled drawings are useful when drawing architectural elevations and sections.

6 year old children have average heights between 44"-47” (111.7-119.4 cm). Outline silhouettes and detailed drawings available.

Illustration of assorted 6 year old kids drawn in front elevation
Collection of assorted 6 year old boys and girls in front elevation with various casual standing postures and clothing used to understand the height of 6 year old children when designing spaces for kids.

6 year old children have average heights between 44"-47” (111.7-119.4 cm). Outline silhouettes and detailed drawings available.

Illustration of assorted 6 year old kids drawn in front elevation
Standing - 6 Year Olds (Front)
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Height (Average): 3’8”-3’11” | 1.19-1.12 m
Style: Casual
Age: 6

Clothing Style
Gender
Age

Drawings include:
6 Year Old Children Standing front elevation (detail), front (outline)

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Sitting - Criss-Cross Applesauce - Kids (Front)

Criss-cross Applesauce, a nursery rhyme phrase referring to sitting cross-legged on the floor, is a popular sitting style used in school environments when gathering students in groups for exercises and reading. Replacing the long-used and politically incorrect ‘Indian Style’ phrase in educational settings, Criss-cross Applesauce is a familiar and common posture that helps students gather and focus students for learning. Kids should not sit in Criss-cross Applesauce position for too long or they may have pains or develop poor posture.

Drawing of a group of boys sitting in criss-cross applesauce position
Criss-cross Applesauce, a rhyme referring to sitting cross-legged on the floor, is a popular sitting style used in school environments when gathering students in groups for exercises and reading. Criss-cross Applesauce is a familiar and common posture that helps bring together and focus children.

Drawing of a group of boys sitting in criss-cross applesauce position
Sitting - Criss-Cross Applesauce - Kids (Front)
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Sitting Style: Criss-Cross Applesauce
Attire: Casual/School
Ages: 4-6

Drawings include:
Children | Kids Sitting Front elevation, front (outline)

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