Airliners

Airliners

Description
Description

Airliners are large aircraft primarily designed for transporting passengers and cargo over considerable distances. Distinguished from other aircraft by size and capacity, they often feature multiple aisles, vast fuselage cross-sections, and high bypass turbofan engines optimized for efficiency at cruising altitudes. Examples include the Boeing 777, Airbus A380, and Embraer E190. While fighter jets emphasize agility with delta wings or canards, airliners prioritize stability, utilizing swept wings with high-lift devices like flaps and slats. In terms of the future, the industry is exploring electric and hybrid propulsion to reduce carbon emissions.

History
History

The Wright brothers' 1903 flight paved the way for the evolution of airliners. By the 1920s, airlines operated routes connecting major cities, with the Ford Trimotor and Douglas DC-3 among notable early models. The advent of jet propulsion in the mid-20th century, epitomized by the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, revolutionized air travel with faster, higher-flying planes. Jumbo jets like the Boeing 747 made long-haul travel more accessible in the 1970s. In recent times, fuel efficiency and sustainability became focal points, leading to models like the Boeing 787 and Airbus A350.

Future
Future

Airliner design is evolving towards sustainability, with a focus on reducing carbon emissions. Electric and hybrid propulsion systems are gaining traction, promising greener, quieter flights. Blended wing body configurations might replace traditional tube-and-wing designs, offering improved aerodynamics and fuel efficiency. Cabin designs are gravitating towards passenger comfort and well-being, with advanced air filtration systems and adaptable spaces. Automation and artificial intelligence are set to play more prominent roles in aircraft operations. As urbanization grows, the demand for shorter regional flights may increase, spurring the development of electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft for urban air mobility.

Common Questions
Common Questions
How fast does a commercial airliner fly?

A typical commercial airliner, such as the Boeing 747 or Airbus A320, cruises at a speed of about 500 to 575 miles per hour (805 to 925 kilometers per hour). This speed, often referred to as Mach 0.78 to Mach 0.85, varies based on the specific aircraft model, altitude, and prevailing weather conditions. It's worth noting that newer models like the Boeing 787 or Airbus A350 might operate slightly faster, emphasizing both speed and fuel efficiency.

What is the typical cruising altitude of an airliner?

A typical commercial airliner usually cruises at altitudes between 30,000 and 40,000 feet (9,000 to 12,200 meters). This range is favored because of fuel efficiency, reduced air traffic, and the ability to fly over most weather disturbances. Specific cruising altitudes might be assigned by air traffic control based on the aircraft's weight, route, and prevailing traffic. The atmosphere's thinner air at these heights reduces drag, enhancing fuel economy and overall performance.

What is the largest passenger airliner in production?

As of January 2022, the Airbus A380 was the largest passenger airliner by seating capacity. However, Airbus announced its decision to cease its production in 2021 due to reduced demand. With the A380's production ending, the Boeing 777X, specifically the 777-9 variant, is set to be the largest in terms of capacity and wingspan. Always check with the latest industry sources for current information on aircraft production and specifications.

Transport

* Under Development *

38’7” | 11.76 m
117’5” | 35.8 m
123’3” | 37.57 m
82,100 lb | 37,200 kg
1984
Airbus A320
1176.000
3580.000
3757.000
37200.000
1984.00
217000
GUIDE
3D
Airbus A320
55’11” | 17.05 m
212’5” | 64.75 m
219’2” | 66.8 m
239,000 lb | 108,400 kg
2014
Airbus A350-900
1705.000
6475.000
6680.000
108400.000
2014.00
66000
GUIDE
3D
Airbus A350-900
79’ | 24.09 m
261’8” | 79.75 m
238’7” | 72.72 m
628,300 lb | 285,000 kg
2005
Airbus A380-800
2409.000
7975.000
7272.000
285000.000
2005.00
207000
GUIDE
3D
Airbus A380-800
41’2” | 12.55 m
112’7” | 34.32 m
129’6” | 39.47 m
90,700 lb | 41,140 kg
1994
Boeing 737-800
1255.000
3432.000
3947.000
41140.000
1994.00
141000
GUIDE
3D
Boeing 737-800
60’8” | 18.5 m
212’7” | 64.8 m
242’4” | 73.86 m
370,000 lb | 167,800 kg
2004
Boeing 777-300ER
1850.000
6480.000
7386.000
167800.000
2004.00
126000
GUIDE
3D
Boeing 777-300ER
55’6” | 16.92 m
197’3” | 60.12 m
186’1” | 56.72 m
264,500 lb | 120,000 kg
2011
Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner
1692.000
6012.000
5672.000
120000.000
2011.00
37000
GUIDE
3D
Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner
Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner
Comparison drawing of Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner compared to similar airliners

The Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner embodies a modern approach to air travel. Primarily constructed from carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers, it offers weight savings and increased fuel efficiency. Advanced aerodynamics, including raked wingtips, optimize its flight performance. Its engines, like the GEnx or Rolls-Royce Trent 1000, are quieter and more fuel-efficient.

The cabin is notable for its larger windows, using electrochromic dimming instead of physical shades. An advanced air filtration system, higher cabin pressure, and increased humidity levels aim to enhance passenger comfort. The 787-8's design prioritizes operational efficiency, reduced emissions, and an elevated passenger experience.

The Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner has an overall length of 186’1” (56.72 m), wingspan of 197’3” (60.12 m), and height of 55’6” (16.92 m). Boeing 787-8 Dreamliners have an empty weight of 264,500 lb (120,000 kg) and can accommodate between 240-296 passengers.

Scaled set of drawings of Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner in front, side and top views
The Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner embodies a modern approach to air travel. Primarily constructed from carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers, it offers weight savings and increased fuel efficiency. Advanced aerodynamics, including raked wingtips, optimize its flight performance.

The Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner has an overall length of 186’1” (56.72 m), wingspan of 197’3” (60.12 m), and height of 55’6” (16.92 m). Boeing 787-8 Dreamliners have an empty weight of 264,500 lb (120,000 kg) and can accommodate between 240-296 passengers.

Scaled set of drawings of Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner in front, side and top views
Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner
Height:
55’6” | 16.92 m
Width:
197’3” | 60.12 m
Length:
186’1” | 56.72 m
Depth:
Weight:
264,500 lb | 120,000 kg
Area:
Model
Manufacturer
Boeing
Year
2011

Drawings include:
Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner plan, side, front, back

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Airbus A380-800
Comparison drawing of Airbus A380-800 compared to similar airliners

The Airbus A380-800, often dubbed the "Superjumbo", is a marvel in aviation, distinguished by its two full-length passenger decks. Its iconic humpbacked shape, large curved wings, and four massive engines make it unmistakable at airports. Inside, its spaciousness allows for amenities like lounges, bars, or even showers.

The A380's quiet cabin, enhanced by advanced soundproofing, offers an oasis of calm. Bigger windows, ambient mood lighting, and cleaner air circulation heighten the travel experience. In essence, the A380-800 merges impressive size with a commitment to passenger luxury and comfort, redefining expectations for long-haul journeys.

The Airbus A380-800 has an overall length of 238’7” (72.72 m), wingspan of 261’8” (79.75 m), and height of 79’ (24.09 m). Airbus A380-800s have an empty weight of 628,300 lb (285,000 kg) and can accommodate between 525-853 passengers.

Scaled set of drawings of Airbus A380-800 in front, side and top views
The Airbus A380-800, often dubbed the "Superjumbo", is a marvel in aviation, distinguished by its two full-length passenger decks. Its iconic humpbacked shape, large curved wings, and four massive engines make it unmistakable at airports. Inside, its spaciousness allows for amenities like lounges.

The Airbus A380-800 has an overall length of 238’7” (72.72 m), wingspan of 261’8” (79.75 m), and height of 79’ (24.09 m). Airbus A380-800s have an empty weight of 628,300 lb (285,000 kg) and can accommodate between 525-853 passengers.

Scaled set of drawings of Airbus A380-800 in front, side and top views
Airbus A380-800
Height:
79’ | 24.09 m
Width:
261’8” | 79.75 m
Length:
238’7” | 72.72 m
Depth:
Weight:
628,300 lb | 285,000 kg
Area:
Model
Manufacturer
Airbus
Year
2005

Drawings include:
Airbus A380-800 plan, side, front, back

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Airbus A350-900
Scale illustration of Airbus A350-900 compared to other airliner types

The Airbus A350-900 is an emblem of modern aeronautics, largely constructed from carbon-fiber composites, making it lighter and more fuel-efficient. It boasts a unique nose design and a graceful, tapered wingtip, enhancing aerodynamics and fuel conservation. One immediately noticeable feature inside is the larger windows, flooding the cabin with natural light.

Its "mood lighting" adjusts to time zones, reducing jet lag. Additionally, the cabin's air is refreshed more often, elevating passenger comfort. On the whole, the A350-900 epitomizes a blend of cutting-edge materials, passenger-centric innovations, and refined aesthetics, setting a fresh benchmark in long-haul air travel.

The Airbus A350-900 has an overall length of 219’2” (66.8 m), wingspan of 212’5” (64.75 m), and height of 55’11” (17.05 m). Airbus A350-900s have an empty weight of 239,000 lb (108,400 kg) and can accommodate between 300-410 passengers.

Group of dimensioned illustrations of Airbus A350-900 seen in elevation and plan
The Airbus A350-900 is an emblem of modern aeronautics, largely constructed from carbon-fiber composites, making it lighter and more fuel-efficient. It boasts a unique nose design and a graceful, tapered wingtip, enhancing aerodynamics and fuel conservation.

The Airbus A350-900 has an overall length of 219’2” (66.8 m), wingspan of 212’5” (64.75 m), and height of 55’11” (17.05 m). Airbus A350-900s have an empty weight of 239,000 lb (108,400 kg) and can accommodate between 300-410 passengers.

Group of dimensioned illustrations of Airbus A350-900 seen in elevation and plan
Airbus A350-900
Height:
55’11” | 17.05 m
Width:
212’5” | 64.75 m
Length:
219’2” | 66.8 m
Depth:
Weight:
239,000 lb | 108,400 kg
Area:
Model
Manufacturer
Airbus
Year
2014

Drawings include:
Airbus A350-900 plan, side, front, back

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Boeing 777-300ER
Scale illustration of Boeing 777-300ER compared to other airliner types

The Boeing 777-300ER stands as an extended range variant of the 777 family, blending efficiency with long-haul capabilities. Its raked wingtips and elongated fuselage distinguish it from earlier models. The aircraft employs powerful GE90-115B engines, the world's most powerful jet engine, enabling it to cover distances efficiently.

Its main landing gear, with six wheels on each strut, is unique among twin-engine planes. The twin-aisle cabin can accommodate over 300 passengers in a three-class layout. Overall, the 777-300ER combines aerodynamic refinements, structural enhancements, and power optimization to offer airlines a compelling blend of range, capacity, and operational efficiency.

The Boeing 777-300ER has an overall length of 242’4” (73.86 m), wingspan of 212’7” (64.8 m), and height of 60’8” (18.5 m). Boeing 777-300ERs have an empty weight of 370,000 lb (167,800 kg) and can accommodate between 340-396 passengers.

Group of dimensioned illustrations of Boeing 777-300ER seen in elevation and plan
The Boeing 777-300ER stands as an extended range variant of the 777 family, blending efficiency with long-haul capabilities. Its raked wingtips and elongated fuselage distinguish it from earlier models. The aircraft employs powerful GE90-115B engines, the world's most powerful jet engine.

The Boeing 777-300ER has an overall length of 242’4” (73.86 m), wingspan of 212’7” (64.8 m), and height of 60’8” (18.5 m). Boeing 777-300ERs have an empty weight of 370,000 lb (167,800 kg) and can accommodate between 340-396 passengers.

Group of dimensioned illustrations of Boeing 777-300ER seen in elevation and plan
Boeing 777-300ER
Height:
60’8” | 18.5 m
Width:
212’7” | 64.8 m
Length:
242’4” | 73.86 m
Depth:
Weight:
370,000 lb | 167,800 kg
Area:
Model
Manufacturer
Boeing
Year
2004

Drawings include:
Boeing 777-300ER plan, side, front, back

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Boeing 737-800
Style and size comparison drawing of Boeing 737-800 compared to other airliner types

The Boeing 737-800 is a key variant of the 737 Next Generation (NG) family, bridging the gap between capacity and range. Distinct from its predecessors, it features a stretched fuselage accommodating more passengers. The advanced wing design, with upward-angled winglets, reduces drag and boosts fuel efficiency. Equipped with CFM56-7 engines, it offers improved thrust and performance.

The redesigned, spacious cabin can be tailored for various seating configurations, maximizing passenger comfort. This model also integrates upgraded avionics and systems. As a short-to-medium-haul workhorse, the 737-800 encapsulates a balance of operational efficiency, adaptability, and passenger-centric design.

The Boeing 737-800 has an overall length of 129’6” (39.47 m), wingspan of 112’7” (34.32 m), and height of 41’2” (12.55 m). Boeing 737-800s have an empty weight of 90,700 lb (41,140 kg) and can accommodate between 162-189 passengers.

Set of scaled dimensioned drawings of Boeing 737-800 viewed from the front, plan, and side
The Boeing 737-800 is a key variant of the 737 Next Generation (NG) family, bridging the gap between capacity and range. Distinct from its predecessors, it features a stretched fuselage accommodating more passengers. The redesigned, spacious cabin can be tailored for various seating configurations.

The Boeing 737-800 has an overall length of 129’6” (39.47 m), wingspan of 112’7” (34.32 m), and height of 41’2” (12.55 m). Boeing 737-800s have an empty weight of 90,700 lb (41,140 kg) and can accommodate between 162-189 passengers.

Set of scaled dimensioned drawings of Boeing 737-800 viewed from the front, plan, and side
Boeing 737-800
Height:
41’2” | 12.55 m
Width:
112’7” | 34.32 m
Length:
129’6” | 39.47 m
Depth:
Weight:
90,700 lb | 41,140 kg
Area:
Model
Manufacturer
Boeing
Year
1994

Drawings include:
Boeing 737-800 plan, side, front, back

Downloads

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