Window operation is one of the most crucial choices to consider when selecting a window sash. Offering a variety of styles and functions applicable to specific conditions, a range of window operations should be considered to best meet your needs for ventilation, operability, screening, and daylighting. The primary difference between window operation types are between projected or hinged types such as casement, awning, and hopper windows and the sliding variety of windows that includes double-hung, single-hung, and sliding types. Other specialty types include pivoting, jalousie, skylights, and storm windows.

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Jalousie Windows
Illustration of a Jalousie Window viewed from the front profile

Jalousie windows, or louver/louvre windows, is a window type with horizontal louvers set in a common frame with a track that allows for the user to simultaneously pivot the louvers. Because of this control, the jalousie window type can flexibly adjust airflow, light, and privacy with ease. Louvered windows have been commonly used in mild climates where operability can provide desirable ventilation during sun, rain, and cooler months. Variations include the possibility to vary louver widths and materiality, and also whether the window is operable (jalousie) or fixed (louver).

Jalousie windows, or louver/louvre windows, is a window type with horizontal louvers set in a common frame with a track that allows for the user to simultaneously pivot the louvers. Because of this control, the jalousie window type can flexibly adjust airflow, light, and privacy with ease.

Jalousie Windows
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Ventilation: 100% max
Louvers: Horizontal
Operation: Simultaneous pivot (jalousie), fixed (louver)
Variations: Louver dimensions, louver materiality, operable (jalousie) or fixed (louver)
Use: Mild climates; control ventilation or visibility

Drawings include:
Jalousie Window front elevation, axon drawing

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Double-Hung Windows
Front elevation drawing of a Double-Hung window

Double-hung windows have two or more sashes that slide vertically. Double-hung windows allow for both sashes to slide in separate tracks, while the single-sliding option only allows for one sash to slide while the other remains fixed. An advantage to slider windows is their ability to adjust ventilation from being totally open (50% max) to reducing air flow to a small opening. The sashes of a double-hung window remain held in place through the use of counterweights, friction, or pretensioned springs. Variations on the sliding window are: double or single tracks, screens on the interior or exterior unit, and the possibility of a pivoting hinge on the sash.

Double-hung windows have two or more sashes that slide vertically. Double-hung windows allow for both sashes to slide in separate tracks, while the single-sliding option only allows for one sash to slide while the other remains fixed.

Double-Hung Windows
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Ventilation: 50% max
Sashes: Two vertical
Operation: Slides along tracks
Variations: Double, single, screen, counterweights, pivot capable

Drawings include:
Double-Hung Window front elevation, axon

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Sliding Windows
Drawing of a standard Sliding Window in front elevation

Sliding windows have two or more sashes that slide horizontally. Double-sliding windows allow for both sashes to slide, while the single-sliding option only allows for one sash to slide while the other remains fixed. An advantage to slider windows is their ability to adjust ventilation from being totally open (50% max) to reducing air flow to a small opening. Variations on the sliding window are: double or single tracks, screens on the interior or exterior unit, and the possibility of a pivoting hinge on the sash.

Sliding windows have two or more sashes that slide horizontally. Double-sliding windows allow for both sashes to slide, while the single-sliding option only allows for one sash to slide while the other remains fixed. Slider windows can adjust ventilation from open (50% max) to a small opening.

Sliding Windows
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Ventilation: 50% max, flexible opening
Sashes: Two or more
Operation: Slides along tracks
Variations: Double, single, screen, pivot capable

Drawings include:
Sliding Window front elevation, axon

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Fixed Windows
Front elevation drawing of a Fixed Window

Fixed windows are comprised of a frame and a static sash. If paired with operable windows, the thickness of the fixed sash should best match the cross-sectional dimensions of the operable sash.

Fixed windows are comprised of a frame and a static sash. If paired with operable windows, the thickness of the fixed sash should best match the cross-sectional dimensions of the operable sash.

Fixed Windows
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Ventilation: 0%
Sashes:
Fixed
Operation:
Stationary

Drawings include:
Fixed Windows front elevation, axon

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Awning & Hopper Windows
Front elevation drawing of Awning & Hopper Windows

Awning windows haves top-hinged sashes that swing outward from their frame. Hopper windows haves bottom-hinged sashes that swing inward from their frame. Both variations of window types allow for direct ventilation when open and equally have low air leakage rates due to their sashes pressing tightly against the frame when closed. Like casement windows, the entire window face can be opened. Variations on awning and hopper assembly include screens to control breezes, and the choice for either vertically stacked sashes or meeting with a stile.

Awning windows haves top-hinged sashes that swing outward from their frame. Hopper windows haves bottom-hinged sashes that swing inward from their frame. Both variations of window types allow for ventilation when open and have low air leakage rates as their sashes close tightly against the frame.

Awning & Hopper Windows
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Ventilation: 100%
Sashes (Awning):
Top-hinged
Operation (Awning):
Outward swing
Sashes (Hopper):
Bottom-hinged
Operation (Hopper):
Inward swing
Variations:
Screens, vertical sashes, stiles

Drawings include:
Awning & Hopper Windows front elevation, axon

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