Herpestids | Herpestoidea

Herpestids | Herpestoidea

Description
Description

Herpestids, commonly known as mongooses, belong to the superfamily Herpestoidea, which also includes meerkats and civets. These small, agile carnivores are primarily found in Africa, with some species inhabiting southern Europe and Asia. They boast slender bodies, sharp teeth, and are known for their remarkable reflexes and ability to hunt venomous snakes.

Evolving around 30 million years ago, herpestids adapted to a variety of habitats, from savannas to forests. They are opportunistic feeders, preying on insects, crabs, earthworms, lizards, birds, and rodents. Living in complex social structures, some species like meerkats exhibit cooperative behaviors, especially in rearing young and vigilance against predators.

Anatomy
Anatomy

Herpestids are small to medium-sized carnivores with slender bodies, tapered heads, and short legs. Their fur ranges from brown to gray, sometimes banded or spotted. They have sharp, pointed teeth suited for capturing and consuming prey, including venomous snakes. Renowned for their agility, they move with quick, darting motions. Mongooses communicate through a series of vocalizations like growls, hisses, and chirps, especially during social interactions or when threatened. Their keen senses of smell and hearing are crucial for detecting food and predators. Some species have semi-retractable claws, aiding in climbing and digging. Overall, their anatomy reflects their versatile and opportunistic lifestyle.

Human Interaction
Human Interaction

Humans have shared a complex relationship with herpestids, notably mongooses, for centuries. In some cultures, they are admired for their ability to control pests and venomous snakes, leading to their introduction in places like Hawaii and the Caribbean for rodent control. This, unfortunately, led to ecological imbalances. Mongooses also feature in folklore and literature, with the most famous being Rikki-Tikki-Tavi from Rudyard Kipling's "The Jungle Book."

In terms of conservation, certain mongoose species are threatened by habitat loss and hunting. Conservation efforts focus on habitat preservation and addressing the negative impacts of introduced mongoose populations on native wildlife.

Common Questions
Common Questions
Where do mongooses live?

Mongooses typically live in the continent of Africa and their habitat extends over most of the continent. Some mongoose species live in parts of southern Asia as well as the Iberian Peninsula. Most Mongoose species are terrestrial while others are semi-aquatic and others live in the trees.

Is a mongoose a rodent?

A mongoose is not a rodent, despite its rodent-like appearance. A mongoose is a member of the Herpestidae family that also includes civets and meerkats. A mongoose often gets mistaken for and referred to as a rodent due to its fur, body length, pointed face, and bushy tail.

Why are mongooses immune to snake venom?

Mongooses are immune to snake venom due to them having a uniquely mutated receptor of the brain transmitter, acetylcholine. The toxins of many snake venoms bind to the acetylcholine receptors which block nerve-muscle communications. The venom as a result of the mutation bounces off the muscle cells which results in no harm.

Animals

* Under Development *

16”-20” | 41-51 cm (Shoulder)
5.9”-7.9” | 15-20 cm
21.6”-31.5” | 55-80 cm
18-26.5 lb | 8-12 kg
8-14 years
Aardwolf
51.000
20.000
80.000
12.000
14.00
37000
GUIDE
3D
Aardwolf
5.9”-9.1” | 15-23 cm (Shoulder)
2.75”-4.3” | 7-11 cm
12”-18” | 30.5-46 cm
3.3-5.5 lb | 1.5-2.5 kg
10-17 years
Banded Mongoose
23.000
11.000
46.000
2.500
17.00
2300
GUIDE
3D
Banded Mongoose
28”-31” | 71-79 cm (Shoulder)
11.8”-13.8” | 30-35 cm
39.4”-49.2” | 100-125 cm
84-104 lb | 38-47 kg
12-20 years
Brown Hyena
79.000
35.000
125.000
47.000
20.00
8100
GUIDE
3D
Brown Hyena
5.5”-5.9” | 14-15 cm (Shoulder)
2.75”-3.3” | 7-8.5 cm
12”-13” | 30.5-33 cm
1.3-1.5 lb | .6-.675 kg
10-13 years
Durrell’s Vontsira
15.000
8.500
33.000
0.675
13.00
80
GUIDE
3D
Durrell’s Vontsira
3.5”-5.5” | 9-14 cm (Shoulder)
2.4”-3.9” | 6-10 cm
7”-11” | 18-28 cm
.44-.77 lb | .2-.35 kg
8-18 years
Dwarf Mongoose
14.000
10.000
28.000
0.350
18.00
250
GUIDE
3D
Dwarf Mongoose
Fossa
44000
11.8”-13.8” | 30-35 cm (Shoulder)
5.5”-6.3” | 14-16 cm
27”-31” | 69-79 cm
12-19 lb | 5.5-8.6 kg
15-23 years
Fossa
35.000
16.000
79.000
8.600
23.00
44000
GUIDE
3D
Fossa
6.3”-9.1” | 16-23 cm (Shoulder)
4.9”-7.5” | 12.5-19 cm
12”-18” | 30.5-46 cm
1-3.1 lb | .45-1.4 kg
9-13 years
Kusimanse
23.000
19.000
46.000
1.400
13.00
30
GUIDE
3D
Kusimanse
Meerkat
87000
5.7”-7.9” | 14.5-20 cm (Shoulder)
2.75”-3.5” | 7-9 cm
9.8”-13.8” | 25-35 cm
1.3-2.2 lb | .6-1 kg
8-20 years
Meerkat
20.000
9.000
35.000
1.000
20.00
87000
GUIDE
3D
Meerkat
27.6”-36.2” | 70-92 cm (Shoulder)
9.8”-13.8” | 25-35 cm
37.4”-55.1” | 95-140 cm
99-165 lb | 45-75 kg
12-25 years
Spotted Hyena
92.000
35.000
140.000
75.000
25.00
15000
GUIDE
3D
Spotted Hyena
25.5”-29.5” | 65-75 cm (Shoulder)
11.8”-13.8” | 30-35 cm
35.4”-45.3” | 90-115 cm
44-99 lb | 20-45 kg
10-25 years
Striped Hyena
75.000
35.000
115.000
45.000
25.00
15000
GUIDE
3D
Striped Hyena
7.9”-10.6” | 20-27 cm (Shoulder)
3.9”-5.1” | 10-13 cm
17.7”-25.6” | 45-65 cm
3.3-10 lb | 1.5-4.5 kg
7-9 years
Western Falanouc
27.000
13.000
65.000
4.500
9.00
20
GUIDE
3D
Western Falanouc
4.3”-5.9” | 11-15 cm (Shoulder)
2”-3” | 5-7.5 cm
9”-13” | 23-33 cm
1-1.3 lb | .45-.6 kg
10-15 years
Yellow Mongoose
15.000
7.500
33.000
0.600
15.00
700
GUIDE
3D
Yellow Mongoose
Aardwolf (Proteles cristata)
Dimensioned comparison drawing of the Aardwolf compared to simliar Herpestid species

The Aardwolf (Proteles cristata) is an insectivorous mammal that lives in the shrublands of eastern and southern Africa. Its appearance is similar to that of a thin Striped Hyena, but the Aardwolf has a more slender muzzle, black vertical stripes on a coat of yellow fur, and a long mane down the midline of the neck and back. During confrontations, the Aardwolf’s mane is raised to appear larger. As their diets consist mostly of termites, they are found in regions where the family Hodotermitidae are abundant, like grasslands and savannahs. They are known to by shy, and as nocturnal animals, they sleep in burrows during the day.

The Aardwolf has a body length in the range of 21.6”-31.5” (55-80 cm) and total weight of 18-26.5 lb (8-12 kg). Aardwolfs have a shoulder height between 16”-20” (41-51 cm), body width of 5.9”-7.9” (15-20 cm), and tail length of 7.9”-11.8” (20-30 cm). The typical lifespan of the Aardwolf is between 8-14 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Aardwolf viewed from the front and side
The Aardwolf (Proteles cristata) is an insectivorous mammal that lives in the shrublands of eastern and southern Africa. Its appearance is similar to that of a thin Striped Hyena, but the Aardwolf has a more slender muzzle, black vertical stripes on a coat of yellow fur, and a long mane.

The Aardwolf has a body length in the range of 21.6”-31.5” (55-80 cm) and total weight of 18-26.5 lb (8-12 kg). Aardwolfs have a shoulder height between 16”-20” (41-51 cm), body width of 5.9”-7.9” (15-20 cm), and tail length of 7.9”-11.8” (20-30 cm). The typical lifespan of the Aardwolf is between 8-14 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Aardwolf viewed from the front and side
Aardwolf (Proteles cristata)
Height:
16”-20” | 41-51 cm (Shoulder)
Width:
5.9”-7.9” | 15-20 cm
Length:
21.6”-31.5” | 55-80 cm
Depth:
Weight:
18-26.5 lb | 8-12 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 7.9”-11.8” | 20-30 cm

Scientific Name
Proteles cristata
Lifespan
8-14 years

Drawings include:

Aardwolf side elevation, front, back, lying down

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Spotted Hyena (Crocuta crocuta)
Dimensioned comparison drawing of the Spotted Hyena compared to simliar Herpestid species

The Spotted Hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the Laughing Hyena, is hyena species that is characterized by its various vocalizations of communication, and sociable personality. The Spotted Hyena has a bear-like body covered with a fur pattern that has a unique spot pattern of large dark brown-red spots that do not change with age. The Spotted Hyena is native to the sub-Saharan Africa regions, living in extreme desert conditions, tropical rainforests, and alpine mountains. The Spotted Hyena eats Wildebeests, Zebras, and Impalas. Its lifespan ranges from up to 20 years in the wild, up to 40 years in captivity, and is not in danger of extinction.

The Spotted Hyena has a body length in the range of 37.4”-55.1” (95-140 cm) and total weight of 99-165 lb (45-75 kg). Spotted Hyenas have a shoulder height between 27.6”-36.2” (70-92 cm), body width of 9.8”-13.8” (25-35 cm), and tail length of 9.8”-14.2” (25-36 cm). The typical lifespan of the Spotted Hyena is between 12-25 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Spotted Hyena viewed from the front and side
The Spotted Hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the Laughing Hyena, is hyena species that is characterized by its various vocalizations of communication, and sociable personality. The Spotted Hyena has a bear-like body covered with a fur pattern that has a unique spot pattern.

The Spotted Hyena has a body length in the range of 37.4”-55.1” (95-140 cm) and total weight of 99-165 lb (45-75 kg). Spotted Hyenas have a shoulder height between 27.6”-36.2” (70-92 cm), body width of 9.8”-13.8” (25-35 cm), and tail length of 9.8”-14.2” (25-36 cm). The typical lifespan of the Spotted Hyena is between 12-25 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Spotted Hyena viewed from the front and side
Spotted Hyena (Crocuta crocuta)
Height:
27.6”-36.2” | 70-92 cm (Shoulder)
Width:
9.8”-13.8” | 25-35 cm
Length:
37.4”-55.1” | 95-140 cm
Depth:
Weight:
99-165 lb | 45-75 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 9.8”-14.2” | 25-36 cm

Scientific Name
Crocuta crocuta
Lifespan
12-25 years

Drawings include:

Spotted Hyena side elevation, front, back, lying down

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Dwarf Mongoose (Helogale parvula)
Illustrated comparison diagram of the Dwarf Mongoose compared to simliar Herpestid species

The Common Dwarf Mongoose (Helogale parvula) lives in the dry grasslands and open forests of Angola, northern Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and East Africa. It has the characteristics of a typical mongoose- a large pointed head, small ears, a long tail, and short limbs and long claws. The fur is soft and varies in color, from yellow-red to dark brown. The Common Dwarf Mongoose mostly eats insects- beetle larvae, termites, grasshoppers, and crickets, but it will occasionally eat small lizards, snakes, small birds, rodents, and berries. As a social species, the Common Dwarf Mongoose lives in extended family groups of two to thirty animals.

The Dwarf Mongoose has a body length in the range of 7”-11” (18-28 cm) and total weight of .44-.77 lb (.2-.35 kg). Dwarf Mongooses have a shoulder height between 3.5”-5.5” (9-14 cm), body width of 2.4”-3.9” (6-10 cm), and tail length of 4.7”-7.9” (12-20 cm). The typical lifespan of the Dwarf Mongoose is between 8-18 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Dwarf Mongoose in front and side poses
The Common Dwarf Mongoose (Helogale parvula) lives in the dry grasslands and open forests of Angola, northern Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and East Africa. It has the characteristics of a typical mongoose- a large pointed head, small ears, a long tail, and short limbs and long claws.

The Dwarf Mongoose has a body length in the range of 7”-11” (18-28 cm) and total weight of .44-.77 lb (.2-.35 kg). Dwarf Mongooses have a shoulder height between 3.5”-5.5” (9-14 cm), body width of 2.4”-3.9” (6-10 cm), and tail length of 4.7”-7.9” (12-20 cm). The typical lifespan of the Dwarf Mongoose is between 8-18 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Dwarf Mongoose in front and side poses
Dwarf Mongoose (Helogale parvula)
Height:
3.5”-5.5” | 9-14 cm (Shoulder)
Width:
2.4”-3.9” | 6-10 cm
Length:
7”-11” | 18-28 cm
Depth:
Weight:
.44-.77 lb | .2-.35 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 4.7”-7.9” | 12-20 cm

Scientific Name
Helogale parvula
Lifespan
8-18 years

Drawings include:

Dwarf Mongoose side elevation, front

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Brown Hyena (Hyaena brunnea)
Scale illustration of an average Brown Hyena compared to other species of Herpestids

The Brown Hyena (Hyaena brunnea) is a hyena that lives in desert areas, semi-desert, and open wooded savannahs in Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and South Africa. They have a long and shaggy dark brown coat, pointed ears, and a short tail. Adults have a cream-colored fur ruff around their necks, and their legs are striped brown and white. Like wolves, Brown Hyenas have a social hierarchy, and they live in clans made of extended families of four to six hyenas. As scavengers they mostly eat carcasses killed by larger predators, but they supplement their diet with rodents, insects, fruit, and fungi.

The Brown Hyena has a body length in the range of 39.4”-49.2” (100-125 cm) and total weight of 84-104 lb (38-47 kg). Brown Hyenas have a shoulder height between 28”-31” (71-79 cm), body width of 11.8”-13.8” (30-35 cm), and tail length of 7.9”-13.8” (20-35 cm). The typical lifespan of the Brown Hyena is between 12-20 years.

Pair of elevation illustrations of the Brown Hyena seen from the side and front
The Brown Hyena (Hyaena brunnea) is a hyena that lives in desert areas, semi-desert, and open wooded savannahs in Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and South Africa. They have a long and shaggy dark brown coat, pointed ears, and a short tail. Adults have a cream-colored fur ruff.

The Brown Hyena has a body length in the range of 39.4”-49.2” (100-125 cm) and total weight of 84-104 lb (38-47 kg). Brown Hyenas have a shoulder height between 28”-31” (71-79 cm), body width of 11.8”-13.8” (30-35 cm), and tail length of 7.9”-13.8” (20-35 cm). The typical lifespan of the Brown Hyena is between 12-20 years.

Pair of elevation illustrations of the Brown Hyena seen from the side and front
Brown Hyena (Hyaena brunnea)
Height:
28”-31” | 71-79 cm (Shoulder)
Width:
11.8”-13.8” | 30-35 cm
Length:
39.4”-49.2” | 100-125 cm
Depth:
Weight:
84-104 lb | 38-47 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 7.9”-13.8” | 20-35 cm

Scientific Name
Hyaena brunnea
Lifespan
12-20 years

Drawings include:

Brown Hyena side elevation, front

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Kusimanse (Crossarchus obscurus)
Dimensioned comparison drawing of the Kusimanse compared to simliar Herpestid species

The Common Kusimanse (Crossarchus obscurus) is a diurnal dwarf mongoose. They differ from other mongooses in their preferred habitats which are forested areas near water, rather than open grasslands. As a social animal the Common Kusimanse lives in a small family group of 10-20 or more animals that follows a strict hierarchical structure. Physically, they have a weasel-shaped body with dark or red-brown, thick fur that has a wiry texture down the back, and a fine and soft texture on the underside. They have a long snout, short legs with long claws, dark colored eyes, and a short and stiff tail that tapers to a point.

The Kusimanse has a body length in the range of 12”-18” (30.5-46 cm) and total weight of 1-3.1 lb (.45-1.4 kg). Kusimanses have a shoulder height between 6.3”-9.1” (16-23 cm), body width of 4.9”-7.5” (12.5-19 cm), and tail length of 5.9”-9.8” (15-25 cm). The typical lifespan of the Kusimanse is between 9-13 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Kusimanse viewed from the front and side
The Common Kusimanse (Crossarchus obscurus) is a diurnal dwarf mongoose. They differ from other mongooses in their preferred habitats which are forested areas near water, rather than open grasslands. As a social animal the Common Kusimanse lives in a small family group of 10-20.

The Kusimanse has a body length in the range of 12”-18” (30.5-46 cm) and total weight of 1-3.1 lb (.45-1.4 kg). Kusimanses have a shoulder height between 6.3”-9.1” (16-23 cm), body width of 4.9”-7.5” (12.5-19 cm), and tail length of 5.9”-9.8” (15-25 cm). The typical lifespan of the Kusimanse is between 9-13 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Kusimanse viewed from the front and side
Kusimanse (Crossarchus obscurus)
Height:
6.3”-9.1” | 16-23 cm (Shoulder)
Width:
4.9”-7.5” | 12.5-19 cm
Length:
12”-18” | 30.5-46 cm
Depth:
Weight:
1-3.1 lb | .45-1.4 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 5.9”-9.8” | 15-25 cm

Scientific Name
Crossarchus obscurus
Lifespan
9-13 years

Drawings include:

Kusimanse side elevation, front

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