Restrooms fall into two major categories: private bathrooms—like those found in residences—and public restrooms. The layout of a restroom will be largely determined by which of those two categories it falls into, since there are a number of specific regulations and standards, such as ADA accessibility requirements, that must be abided by when designing a public restroom. If the restroom is for a private residence, there are still a number of codes to follow, though a designer will have much more freedom. The two key fixtures that are universal to all restrooms are toilets and sinks. Beyond these, restrooms may also include urinals, mirrors, and storage accommodations such as bathroom cabinetry.
The factors to consider when planning a restroom include: standards and requirements, privacy, accessibility, maintenance, layout, ventilation, and acoustics. All of these factors work together to ensure safety and comfort for the user when in these public facilities. Restroom design can be taken further by implementing color, music, and ideal lighting conditions.
A unisex bathroom, also known as an all-gender restroom, is a public toilet not separated by gender or sex. It can be used by any person regardless of gender identity. A unisex bathroom can be a single occupancy or multi-user facility.
The smaller the restroom, the more important privacy and comfort for each user becomes. These two factors are maximized by proper ventilation and maintenance, especially in a more confined space. It should be designed with consideration to accessibility and floor space availability as well.