Bathrooms are rooms used for personal hygiene and include specific bathroom fixtures such as sinks, toilets, bathtubs and showers. Variations of bathroom layouts include minimal utility bathrooms, full bathrooms with included bathtubs or showers, ensuite bathrooms attached directly to private bedrooms, and jack-and-jill bathrooms split between two separate bedrooms. In real estate, a full bathroom contains four fixtures, a three-quarter bath contains three fixtures, and a half bathroom is limited to only a toilet and sink.
Bathroom layouts should take into consideration additional spaces required bathroom accessories such as towel bars, mirrors, and storage, while also providing comfortable and safe clearances for general movement and usage. Bathroom dimensions will vary on a case-by-case basis due to variations in actual sizes of fixture.
Bathroom layouts evolved significantly over time. Ancient civilizations like Rome built elaborate public baths, while personal hygiene was conducted in smaller, utilitarian spaces at home. Medieval Europe witnessed the disappearance of private bathrooms, with washing conducted in portable basins. Victorian era introduced indoor plumbing, with bathrooms containing free-standing bathtubs and high-tank toilets. The 20th century brought efficient layouts, integrating sinks, toilets, and bathtubs or showers. Today's bathrooms blend functionality with spa-like aesthetics, emphasizing personal comfort and relaxation.
A bathroom layout design will be constrained by the size of the space and should ultimately place function over form in order of priorities. How a bathroom lays out will revolve around the toilet, the maximization of space, and the functionality of all elements. Other factors to consider include: number of regular users, regulations and standards, adequate lighting, efficient ventilation, and the incorporation of storage.
Choosing the right types of necessary elements is the best way to go about designing a small bathroom. These small-space friendly kinds include: a corner or trough sink to maximize the floor area, a shower-tub combo or walk-in shower, and an expansive mirror to make the bathroom appear larger. Wall mounting a vanity, sink, etc. can open up the bathroom to include more shelving for storage purposes.
A Jack and Jill bathroom layout refers to a bathroom placed between two bedrooms. It can be entered in through both doors of either bedroom usually with locks on both the inside and outside to ensure privacy when in use. It has one bath/shower and toilet to be shared, and can have more than one sink in accordance with the implied two users.