Stone Masonry

Stone Masonry

Description
Description

Stone masonry is a form of construction using natural stone and mortar to make load-bearing and non-bearing walls. Benefitting from the inherent durability and weather-resistant properties of natural stone, stone masonry is one of the oldest trades in human history that has been used for buildings, structures, monuments, cities, and sculptures around the world. Because of the differences between various irregular natural stone types, shapes, and sizes, multiple methods of stone masonry construction have been developed in order to respond to unique project demands and locations.

Stone masonry types are distinguished by how tooled and shaped the stones are, and whether the stones are laid in consistent mortared horizontal courses or organized in random or uncoursed ways. While traditional stone masonry walls were typically bearing walls, today stone is more commonly used as a non-structural facing veneer that is tied back to a structural concrete or masonry wall.

History
History

Stone masonry began with early humans shaping rocks to create tools and shelters. Ancient civilizations, like the Egyptians with their pyramids and Greeks with their temples, showcased stone's durability and grandeur. The Middle Ages saw majestic stone cathedrals rising skyward. Techniques like "ashlar", where stones were finely cut, and "rubble", using rough stones, emerged. Over time, masons passed down skills, blending artistry and engineering, turning raw stone into lasting monuments and structures.

Future
Future

Stone masonry's future combines age-old craftsmanship with modern technology. Laser-cut precision allows for intricate designs, while 3D printing with stone materials opens new creative avenues. Bio-limestone, grown from bacteria, introduces an eco-friendly dimension. Architectural wonders, like the Lumen Pavilion with its stone woven lattice, showcase what's possible. As sustainable building grows in importance, stone's natural insulation properties are increasingly valued. With technology's aid, stone masonry is evolving, making structures both green and breathtaking.

Common Questions
Common Questions
How thick are typical stone walls?

The thickness of stone walls varies based on the type of stone, the intended purpose of the wall, and the design requirements. Generally, stone walls range from 12 inches (30cm) to 24 inches (60cm) in thickness. Load-bearing walls, like retaining walls or boundary walls, are typically thicker, while decorative or non-load bearing walls can be thinner. Factors such as environmental conditions, structural loads, and seismic activity also impact the thickness of stone walls.

What is the most common type of stone used for stone masonry?

The most common type of stone used for stone masonry is granite. It is a hard, durable, and versatile stone with an attractive appearance, making it suitable for a variety of construction applications. Other types of stone used in masonry include limestone, sandstone, marble, and slate, which offer different colors and textures, but granite remains the most commonly used.

What are different types of disciplines within stonemasonry?

There are several disciplines within stonemasonry, including carving, shaping, and installation. Carving involves creating decorative or functional stone elements, such as sculptures or ornamental facades. Shaping involves cutting, grinding, and polishing stones for specific applications, like countertops or tiles. Installation involves fitting and securing stones in a structure, such as walls or floors, while adhering to structural and aesthetic requirements. Other stonemasonry disciplines include restoration, conservation, and repair, which focus on preserving and maintaining existing stonework in historic structures or monuments.

Buildings

* Under Development *

2.25”-8” | 5.7-20.3 cm (Stone)
5.5”-20.5” | 14-52.1 cm (Stone)
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm (Wall)
Stone Masonry - Broken Range Ashlar
20.300
52.100
61.000
3400
https://p3d.in/e/PiDVd
GUIDE
3D
Stone Masonry - Broken Range AshlarView of Broken Range Ashlar Stone Masonry in 3D available for downloadView of Broken Range Ashlar Stone Masonry in 3D available for download
2.25”-8” | 5.7-20.3 cm (Stone)
5.5”-20.5” | 14-52.1 cm (Stone)
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm (Wall)
Stone Masonry - Coursed Ashlar
20.300
52.100
61.000
3470
https://p3d.in/e/MF13q
GUIDE
3D
Stone Masonry - Coursed Ashlar3D model of Coursed Ashlar Stone Masonry viewed in perspective3D model of Coursed Ashlar Stone Masonry viewed in perspective
2.25”-8” | 5.7-20.3 cm (Stone)
5.5”-12” | 14-30.5 cm (Stone)
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm (Wall)
Stone Masonry - Coursed Rubble
20.300
30.500
61.000
3500
https://p3d.in/e/BgHEk
GUIDE
3D
Stone Masonry - Coursed RubblePerspective view of a 3D model of Coursed Rubble Stone MasonryPerspective view of a 3D model of Coursed Rubble Stone Masonry
16”-36” | 40.6-91.4 cm (Stone)
16”-36” | 40.6-91.4 cm (Stone)
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm (Wall)
Stone Masonry - Cyclopean
91.400
91.400
61.000
20
https://p3d.in/e/edTgv
GUIDE
3D
Stone Masonry - CyclopeanView of Cyclopean Stone Masonry in 3D available for downloadView of Cyclopean Stone Masonry in 3D available for download
2.25”-8” | 5.7-20.3 cm (Stone)
5.5”-20.5” | 14-52.1 cm (Stone)
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm (Wall)
Stone Masonry - Random Uncoursed Ashlar
20.300
52.100
61.000
3440
https://p3d.in/e/miQye
GUIDE
3D
Stone Masonry - Random Uncoursed Ashlar3D model of Random Uncoursed Ashlar Stone Masonry viewed in perspective3D model of Random Uncoursed Ashlar Stone Masonry viewed in perspective
2.25”-8” | 5.7-20.3 cm (Stone)
5.5”-12” | 14-30.5 cm (Stone)
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm (Wall)
Stone Masonry - Random Uncoursed Rubble
20.300
30.500
61.000
4520
https://p3d.in/e/EogXn
GUIDE
3D
Stone Masonry - Random Uncoursed RubblePerspective view of a 3D model of Random Uncoursed Rubble Stone MasonryPerspective view of a 3D model of Random Uncoursed Rubble Stone Masonry
2.25”-8” | 5.7-20.3 cm (Stone)
5.5”-12” | 14-30.5 cm (Stone)
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm (Wall)
Stone Masonry - Squared Rubble
20.300
30.500
61.000
2805
https://p3d.in/e/OG0R3
GUIDE
3D
Stone Masonry - Squared RubbleView of Squared Rubble Stone Masonry in 3D available for downloadView of Squared Rubble Stone Masonry in 3D available for download
Stone Masonry - Broken Range Ashlar
Scale illustration of Broken Range Ashlar Stone Masonry compared to other stone masonry configurations

Broken ashlar, or random range ashlar, is a form of stone masonry that deploys tooled ashlar blocks in horizontal courses consisting of varied bricks within each same sized course. Each course may be broken into smaller intervals of two or more courses as necessary which will provide a more organic and layered pattern. This type of masonry is often used in buildings that are designed to be visually appealing, such as churches and other public buildings. It can also be used to create a more rustic or natural look, such as in a garden wall or patio.

Broken Range Ashlar Stone Masonry is comprised of stones with typical stone lengths between 5.5”-20.5” (14-52.1 cm) and stone heights of 2.25”-8” (5.7-20.3 cm). Stone masonry walls have common wall depths of 12”-24” (30.5-61 cm), typical wall heights between 5’-15’ (1.5-4.6 m), and maximum heights of around 35’ (10.7 m).

Pair of dimensioned illustrations of Broken Range Ashlar Stone Masonry seen in elevation
Broken ashlar, or random range ashlar, is a form of stone masonry that deploys tooled ashlar blocks in horizontal courses consisting of varied bricks within each same sized course. Each course may be broken into smaller intervals of two or more courses as necessary.

Broken Range Ashlar Stone Masonry is comprised of stones with typical stone lengths between 5.5”-20.5” (14-52.1 cm) and stone heights of 2.25”-8” (5.7-20.3 cm). Stone masonry walls have common wall depths of 12”-24” (30.5-61 cm), typical wall heights between 5’-15’ (1.5-4.6 m), and maximum heights of around 35’ (10.7 m).

Pair of dimensioned illustrations of Broken Range Ashlar Stone Masonry seen in elevation
Stone Masonry - Broken Range Ashlar
Height:
2.25”-8” | 5.7-20.3 cm (Stone)
Width:
5.5”-20.5” | 14-52.1 cm (Stone)
Length:
Depth:
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm (Wall)
Wall Height
5’-15’ | 1.5-4.6 m (Typical); 35’ | 10.7 m (Max)
Weight:
Area:
Materials
Finely cut and dressed stones

Drawings include:

Broken Range Ashlar Stone Masonry elevation, plan, section

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Stone Masonry - Coursed Rubble
Style and size comparison drawing of Coursed Rubble Stone Masonry compared to other stone masonry types

Coursed rubble stone masonry is made with broken stones of widely different sizes and qualities that are laid in level courses. One of the most common forms of masonry construction, coursed rubble stones are typically hammer dressed to be shaped into more controlled and equal sizes. Coursed rubble masonry is laid with continuous and approximately level courses that can have varied heights along the length of each course. Coursed rubble masonry is a strong and durable type of construction, and it is often used for load-bearing walls and foundations.

Coursed Rubble Stone Masonry is comprised of stones with typical stone lengths between 5.5”-12” (14-30.5 cm) and stone heights of 2.25”-8” (5.7-20.3 cm). Stone masonry walls have common wall depths of 12”-24” (30.5-61 cm), typical wall heights between 5’-15’ (1.5-4.6 m), and maximum heights of around 35’ (10.7 m).

Set of scaled dimensioned drawings of Coursed Rubble Stone Masonry viewed from the front
Coursed rubble stone masonry is made with broken stones of widely different sizes and qualities that are laid in level courses. One of the most common forms of masonry construction, coursed rubble stones are typically hammer dressed to be shaped into more controlled and equal sizes.

Coursed Rubble Stone Masonry is comprised of stones with typical stone lengths between 5.5”-12” (14-30.5 cm) and stone heights of 2.25”-8” (5.7-20.3 cm). Stone masonry walls have common wall depths of 12”-24” (30.5-61 cm), typical wall heights between 5’-15’ (1.5-4.6 m), and maximum heights of around 35’ (10.7 m).

Set of scaled dimensioned drawings of Coursed Rubble Stone Masonry viewed from the front
Stone Masonry - Coursed Rubble
Height:
2.25”-8” | 5.7-20.3 cm (Stone)
Width:
5.5”-12” | 14-30.5 cm (Stone)
Length:
Depth:
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm (Wall)
Wall Height
5’-15’ | 1.5-4.6 m (Typical); 35’ | 10.7 m (Max)
Weight:
Area:
Materials
Hammer dressed stone

Drawings include:

Coursed Rubble Stone Masonry elevation, plan, section

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Stone Masonry - Random Uncoursed Rubble
Style and size comparison drawing of Random Uncoursed Rubble Stone Masonry compared to other stone masonry types

Random uncoursed rubble stone masonry is made by stacking broken stones of widely different sizes and qualities. Considered the cheapest and roughest type of stone masonry, random uncoursed rubble masonry is typically made up of stones pulled directly from the land with minimal efforts used to to prepare the corners of the stones before they are laid. Large stones are laid first and the spaces between are followed with smaller broken stones. Random rubble masonry is laid with discontinuous but roughly level courses with expressed faces to emphasize the natural qualities of the stone shapes.

Random Uncoursed Rubble Stone Masonry is comprised of stones with typical stone lengths between 5.5”-12” (14-30.5 cm) and stone heights of 2.25”-8” (5.7-20.3 cm). Stone masonry walls have common wall depths of 12”-24” (30.5-61 cm), typical wall heights between 5’-15’ (1.5-4.6 m), and maximum heights of around 35’ (10.7 m).

Set of scaled dimensioned drawings of Random Uncoursed Rubble Stone Masonry viewed from the front
Random uncoursed rubble stone masonry is made by stacking broken stones of widely different sizes and qualities. Considered the cheapest and roughest type of stone masonry, random uncoursed rubble masonry is typically made up of stones pulled directly from the land with minimal efforts.

Random Uncoursed Rubble Stone Masonry is comprised of stones with typical stone lengths between 5.5”-12” (14-30.5 cm) and stone heights of 2.25”-8” (5.7-20.3 cm). Stone masonry walls have common wall depths of 12”-24” (30.5-61 cm), typical wall heights between 5’-15’ (1.5-4.6 m), and maximum heights of around 35’ (10.7 m).

Set of scaled dimensioned drawings of Random Uncoursed Rubble Stone Masonry viewed from the front
Stone Masonry - Random Uncoursed Rubble
Height:
2.25”-8” | 5.7-20.3 cm (Stone)
Width:
5.5”-12” | 14-30.5 cm (Stone)
Length:
Depth:
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm (Wall)
Wall Height
5’-15’ | 1.5-4.6 m (Typical); 35’ | 10.7 m (Max)
Weight:
Area:
Materials
Hammer dressed stone

Drawings include:

Random Uncoursed Rubble Stone Masonry elevation, plan, section

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Stone Masonry - Random Uncoursed Ashlar
Comparison drawing of Random Uncoursed Ashlar Stone Masonry compared to similar stone masonry configurations

Random uncoursed ashlar is a type of stone masonry that uses finely tooled ashlar stones laid in random and discontinuous courses. Consisting of various size stones with highly processed and dressed rectangular shapes, uncoursed ashlar provides a more organic pattern while remaining structurally strong with engineered and controlled joints and bonds. This type of masonry is often used for its aesthetic appeal, as it can create a sense of balance and harmony. However, it is also structurally sound, as the stones are carefully calculated and crafted to ensure structural integrity.

Random Uncoursed Ashlar Stone Masonry is comprised of stones with typical stone lengths between 5.5”-20.5” (14-52.1 cm) and stone heights of 2.25”-8” (5.7-20.3 cm). Stone masonry walls have common wall depths of 12”-24” (30.5-61 cm), typical wall heights between 5’-15’ (1.5-4.6 m), and maximum heights of around 35’ (10.7 m).

Scaled set of drawings of Random Uncoursed Ashlar Stone Masonry in front view with dimensions
Random uncoursed ashlar is a type of stone masonry that uses finely tooled ashlar stones laid in random and discontinuous courses. Consisting of various size stones with highly processed and dressed rectangular shapes, uncoursed ashlar provides a more organic pattern.

Random Uncoursed Ashlar Stone Masonry is comprised of stones with typical stone lengths between 5.5”-20.5” (14-52.1 cm) and stone heights of 2.25”-8” (5.7-20.3 cm). Stone masonry walls have common wall depths of 12”-24” (30.5-61 cm), typical wall heights between 5’-15’ (1.5-4.6 m), and maximum heights of around 35’ (10.7 m).

Scaled set of drawings of Random Uncoursed Ashlar Stone Masonry in front view with dimensions
Stone Masonry - Random Uncoursed Ashlar
Height:
2.25”-8” | 5.7-20.3 cm (Stone)
Width:
5.5”-20.5” | 14-52.1 cm (Stone)
Length:
Depth:
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm (Wall)
Wall Height
5’-15’ | 1.5-4.6 m (Typical); 35’ | 10.7 m (Max)
Weight:
Area:
Materials
Finely cut and dressed stones

Drawings include:

Random Uncoursed Ashlar Stone Masonry elevation, plan, section

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Stone Masonry - Coursed Ashlar
Comparison drawing of Coursed Ashlar Stone Masonry compared to similar stone masonry configurations

Coursed ashlar stone masonry is a construction type built from tooled and dressed ashlar stones with uniform properties throughout. High in cost, labor, and material waste caused by the tooling processes, coursed ashlar masonry is laid with equal heights and joints between every consecutive layer of construction. This type of masonry is very strong and durable, and it is often used in buildings that require a high level of strength and durability, such as castles, cathedrals, and other important structures. Coursed ashlar masonry is also very attractive, and it can be used to create a variety of decorative effects.

Coursed Ashlar Stone Masonry is comprised of stones with typical stone lengths between 5.5”-20.5” (14-52.1 cm) and stone heights of 2.25”-8” (5.7-20.3 cm). Stone masonry walls have common wall depths of 12”-24” (30.5-61 cm), typical wall heights between 5’-15’ (1.5-4.6 m), and maximum heights of around 35’ (10.7 m).

Scaled set of drawings of Coursed Ashlar Stone Masonry in front view with dimensions
Coursed ashlar stone masonry is a construction type built from tooled and dressed ashlar stones with uniform properties throughout. High in cost, labor, and material waste caused by the tooling processes, coursed ashlar masonry is laid with equal heights and joints between every consecutive layer.

Coursed Ashlar Stone Masonry is comprised of stones with typical stone lengths between 5.5”-20.5” (14-52.1 cm) and stone heights of 2.25”-8” (5.7-20.3 cm). Stone masonry walls have common wall depths of 12”-24” (30.5-61 cm), typical wall heights between 5’-15’ (1.5-4.6 m), and maximum heights of around 35’ (10.7 m).

Scaled set of drawings of Coursed Ashlar Stone Masonry in front view with dimensions
Stone Masonry - Coursed Ashlar
Height:
2.25”-8” | 5.7-20.3 cm (Stone)
Width:
5.5”-20.5” | 14-52.1 cm (Stone)
Length:
Depth:
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm (Wall)
Wall Height
5’-15’ | 1.5-4.6 m (Typical); 35’ | 10.7 m (Max)
Weight:
Area:
Materials
Finely cut and dressed stones

Drawings include:

Coursed Ashlar Stone Masonry elevation, plan, section

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads