Public Buildings

Public buildings are structures that are used by the general public and are owned by the government or a non-profit organization. They can range from small, single-story buildings to large complexes. Some examples of public buildings include schools, libraries, hospitals, and government offices. Schools are used for the education of children and can include primary, secondary, and higher education institutions. Libraries provide access to books, media, and other resources for the public to borrow or use on site. Hospitals are medical facilities that provide a range of healthcare services to the public. Government offices are where public servants work to serve the needs of the community, and can include city halls, courthouses, and post offices.

How do public spaces support people?

Public spaces are areas that are open and accessible to the general public and built to provide a place for people to gather, socialize, and engage in activities. They can also provide amenities such as seating, restrooms, and water fountains that make it easier for people to spend time in these spaces. Public spaces can also serve as a hub for community events and activities, such as concerts, festivals, and sporting events that can contribute to the overall well-being of the people who use them.

What is ‘privately owned public space (POPS)’?

Privately owned public space (POPS) is a term used to describe outdoor areas that are owned by private entities, but are open and accessible to the public. These spaces can include plazas, courtyards, and other outdoor areas that are located on private property but are intended for public use. While POPS are privately owned, they are typically subject to specific regulations that govern their use and maintenance, and they are required to remain open and accessible to the public during designated hours.

What does ‘building accessibility’ refer to?

Building accessibility refers to the design and layout of a building and its facilities to ensure that they are accessible and usable by people with disabilities. The goal of building accessibility is to ensure that all people, regardless of their ability level, are able to enter, move around, and use the facilities within a building. Building accessibility is often regulated by law, and buildings are required to meet certain standards in order to be deemed accessible.

* Under Development *

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Public Buildings Guides
Browse through our curated Public Buildings Guides for additional categorizations, tips, details, variations, styles, and histories of Public Buildings. Guides provide additional insights into the unique properties and shared relationships between elements.

Public Buildings

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29.5’ | 9 m (Varies)
8’-10’8” | 2.44-3.28 m (Varies)
41’ | 12.5 m (Varies)
Continuous Escalators (Crossing)
900.000
328.000
1250.000
5
https://p3d.in/e/xq9jN
GUIDE
3D
Continuous Escalators (Crossing)View of Continuous Escalators (Crossing) in 3D available for downloadView of Continuous Escalators (Crossing) in 3D available for download
29.5’ | 9 m (Varies)
16’-21’6” | 4.88-6.55 m (Varies)
41’ | 12.5 m (Varies)
Continuous Escalators (Paired)
900.000
655.000
1250.000
5
https://p3d.in/e/gHKGS
GUIDE
3D
Continuous Escalators (Paired)3D model of Continuous Escalators (Paired) viewed in perspective3D model of Continuous Escalators (Paired) viewed in perspective
29.5’ | 9 m (Varies)
8’-10’8” | 2.44-3.28 m (Varies)
41’ | 12.5 m (Varies)
Continuous Escalators (Single)
900.000
328.000
1250.000
5
https://p3d.in/e/NgKeJ
GUIDE
3D
Continuous Escalators (Single)Perspective view of a 3D model of Continuous Escalators (Single)Perspective view of a 3D model of Continuous Escalators (Single)
29.5’ | 9 m (Varies)
8’-10’8” | 2.44-3.28 m (Varies)
41’ | 12.5 m (Varies)
Discontinuous Escalators (Paired)
900.000
328.000
1250.000
0
https://p3d.in/e/SJ4yo
GUIDE
3D
Discontinuous Escalators (Paired)View of Discontinuous Escalators (Paired) in 3D available for downloadView of Discontinuous Escalators (Paired) in 3D available for download
29.5’ | 9 m (Varies)
4’-5’4” | 1.22-1.63 m (Varies)
41’ | 12.5 m (Varies)
Discontinuous Escalators (Single)
900.000
163.000
1250.000
0
https://p3d.in/e/U0JsR
GUIDE
3D
Discontinuous Escalators (Single)3D model of Discontinuous Escalators (Single) viewed in perspective3D model of Discontinuous Escalators (Single) viewed in perspective
14.75’ | 4.5 m (Varies)
8’-10’8” | 2.44-3.28 m (Varies)
41’ | 12.5 m (Varies)
Escalator (Paired)
450.000
328.000
1250.000
5
https://p3d.in/e/jmsi6
GUIDE
3D
Escalator (Paired)Perspective view of a 3D model of an Escalator (Paired)Perspective view of a 3D model of an Escalator (Paired)
14.75’ | 4.5 m (Varies)
4’-5’4” | 1.22-1.63 m (Varies)
41’ | 12.5 m (Varies)
Escalator (Single)
450.000
163.000
1250.000
20
https://p3d.in/e/ehrZP
GUIDE
3D
Escalator (Single)View of an Escalator (Single) in 3D available for downloadView of an Escalator (Single) in 3D available for download
Continuous Escalators (Crossing)
Group of scaled illustrations of various escalator types compared to the Continuous Escalators (Crossing)

Crossing Escalator arrangements provide the most efficient and continuous movement of people by separating each direction of travel into an individual uninterrupted path. Alternating directions in systematic structural stacks, crisscrossing escalators should be considered when space planning and productivity are critical design objectives. The crossing escalator is most effective when servicing building programs that require fast travel between levels such as moving employees in large department stores, between floors of an office building, and for time sensitive public transportation centers.

Continuous Escalators (Crossing) have a combined height of 29.5’ (9 m), length of 41’ (12.5 m), and common width between 8’-10’8” (2.44-3.28 m). Dimensions will vary based on the desired length and height.

Elevation drawings of Continuous Escalators (Crossing) showing dimensioned analysis of their length, width and height
Crossing Escalator arrangements provide the most efficient and continuous movement of people by separating each direction of travel into an individual uninterrupted path. Crisscrossing escalators should be considered when space planning and productivity are critical design objectives.

Continuous Escalators (Crossing) have a combined height of 29.5’ (9 m), length of 41’ (12.5 m), and common width between 8’-10’8” (2.44-3.28 m). Dimensions will vary based on the desired length and height.

Elevation drawings of Continuous Escalators (Crossing) showing dimensioned analysis of their length, width and height
Continuous Escalators (Crossing)
Height:
29.5’ | 9 m (Varies)
Width:
8’-10’8” | 2.44-3.28 m (Varies)
Length:
41’ | 12.5 m (Varies)
Depth:
Weight:
Area:

Direction: Crossing two-way
Circulation: Efficient, fast, direct
Uses:
Large department stores, office buildings, public transport

Drawings include:
Single Crossing Escalators side elevation, front, plan

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Discontinuous Escalators (Paired)
Group of scaled illustrations of various escalator types compared to the Discontinuous Escalators (Paired)

Paired Discontinuous Escalators are stacked parallel banks of escalators that connect levels in both directions. Like single discontinuous escalators, but with a second adjacent escalator traveling in the opposite direction, this strategy is not efficient for people looking to travel quickly between levels as the circulation requires the user to travel to the opposite landing to continue moving vertically. Paired discontinuous escalators are generally used in small department stores and retail centers where the arrangement requires that customers spend more time inside the retail space.

Discontinuous Escalators (Paired) have a combined height of 29.5’ (9 m), length of 41’ (12.5 m), and common width between 8’-10’8” (2.44-3.28 m). Dimensions will vary based on the desired length and height.

Elevation drawings of Discontinuous Escalators (Paired) showing dimensioned analysis of their length, width and height
Paired Discontinuous Escalators are stacked parallel escalators that connect levels in both directions. Like single discontinuous escalators but with an adjacent escalator traveling in the opposite direction, this strategy is not efficient for people looking to travel quickly between levels.

Discontinuous Escalators (Paired) have a combined height of 29.5’ (9 m), length of 41’ (12.5 m), and common width between 8’-10’8” (2.44-3.28 m). Dimensions will vary based on the desired length and height.

Elevation drawings of Discontinuous Escalators (Paired) showing dimensioned analysis of their length, width and height
Discontinuous Escalators (Paired)
Height:
29.5’ | 9 m (Varies)
Width:
8’-10’8” | 2.44-3.28 m (Varies)
Length:
41’ | 12.5 m (Varies)
Depth:
Weight:
Area:

Direction: Parallel two-way
Circulation: Slow, indirect
Uses:
Small department stores, retail centers, public transport

Drawings include:
Paired Discontinuous Escalators side elevation, front, plan

Details & Downloads

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Discontinuous Escalators (Single)
Size comparison diagram of the Discontinuous Escalators (Single) compared to other similar escalator types

Single Discontinuous Escalators are stacked escalators that connect levels in a single direction. This strategy works best when space is limited, but the one-way traffic is not efficient for people who want to travel quickly between levels. Single discontinuous escalators are generally used in small department stores and retail centers where the non-continuous arrangement encourages customers to slow down and explore more of the store. This discontinuous strategy can also be used with paired escalators.

Discontinuous Escalators (Single) have a combined height of 29.5’ (9 m), length of 41’ (12.5 m), and common width between 4’-5’4” (1.22-1.63 m). Dimensions will vary based on the desired length and height.

Dimensioned elevation drawings of Discontinuous Escalators (Single) measured with length, width and height
Single Discontinuous Escalators are stacked escalators that connect levels in a single direction. This strategy works best when space is limited, but the one-way traffic is not efficient for people who want to travel quickly between levels.

Discontinuous Escalators (Single) have a combined height of 29.5’ (9 m), length of 41’ (12.5 m), and common width between 4’-5’4” (1.22-1.63 m). Dimensions will vary based on the desired length and height.

Dimensioned elevation drawings of Discontinuous Escalators (Single) measured with length, width and height
Discontinuous Escalators (Single)
Height:
29.5’ | 9 m (Varies)
Width:
4’-5’4” | 1.22-1.63 m (Varies)
Length:
41’ | 12.5 m (Varies)
Depth:
Weight:
Area:

Direction: Single, one-way
Circulation: Slow, indirect
Uses:
Small department stores, retail centers

Drawings include:
Single Discontinuous Escalators side elevation, front, plan

Details & Downloads

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Escalator (Single)
Group of scaled illustrations of various escalator types compared to the Escalator (Single)

Escalators are a form of vertical building transportation designed as a staircase that moves with the assistance of a motor-driven mechanism. Escalators are used to connect floors with an angle of rise between 30°-35°. The entire length of an escalator must also provide enough space for a lower zone of mechanical equipment along with a structural truss that averages around 3’8” (1.12 m) deep. Both ends of an escalator require structural supports and may also require intermediate supports depending on the length of the run.

Escalators cannot be used to meet building requirements for fire exits. When specifying an escalator installation, consult directly with the manufacturer for accurate sizes, capacity calculations, speeds, and structural requirements.

For the safety of users, escalators must incorporate 3’ (.91 m) handrails and preserve a minimum vertical headroom clearance of 7’6” (2.29 m). Adequate space should be provided at each loading or discharge platform of an escalator for easy queuing and waiting at peak hours—typically 7’6” (2.29 m) at the bottom and 8’ (2.44 m) at the top. An Escalator (Single) has a typical height of 14.75’ (4.5 m), length of 41’ (12.5 m), and common width between 4’-5’4” (1.22-1.63 m). Dimensions will vary based on the desired length and height.

Drawing of an Escalator with dimensions showing required height clearances, lengths, and depths
Escalators are a form of vertical building transportation designed as a staircase that moves with the assistance of a motor-driven mechanism. Escalators are used to connect floors with an angle of rise between 30°-35°. The escalator must also provide space for a lower zone of mechanical equipment.

For the safety of users, escalators must incorporate 3’ (.91 m) handrails and preserve a minimum vertical headroom clearance of 7’6” (2.29 m). Adequate space should be provided at each loading or discharge platform of an escalator for easy queuing and waiting at peak hours—typically 7’6” (2.29 m) at the bottom and 8’ (2.44 m) at the top. An Escalator (Single) has a typical height of 14.75’ (4.5 m), length of 41’ (12.5 m), and common width between 4’-5’4” (1.22-1.63 m). Dimensions will vary based on the desired length and height.

Drawing of an Escalator with dimensions showing required height clearances, lengths, and depths
Escalator (Single)
Height:
14.75’ | 4.5 m (Varies)
Width:
4’-5’4” | 1.22-1.63 m (Varies)
Length:
41’ | 12.5 m (Varies)
Depth:
Weight:
Area:

Angle of Rise: 30°-35°
Height (Handrail):
3’ | .91 m
Clearance (Headroom): 7’6” | 2.29 m minimum
Landing Length (Bottom): 7’6” | 2.29 m
Landing Length (Top): 8’ | 2.44 m
Depth (Truss): 3’8” | 1.12 m

Drawings include:
Escalator side elevation, plan, front

Details & Downloads

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2D Downloads

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Continuous Escalators (Single)
Scaled comparison drawings of the Continuous Escalators (Single) and other escalator types

Single Continuous Escalators provide connections to subsequent building levels by connecting them directing with one-way circulation. Unlike discontinuous layouts, continuous designs provide users with quick and efficient vertical circulation between multiple levels. Though single continuous escalators only provide movement in one vertical direction, they can be combined with parallel continuous systems in either a paired continuous or crossing layouts. Single continuous escalators should be used in retail and commercial spaces where speed and efficiency are important for operation.

Continuous Escalators (Single) have a combined height of 29.5’ (9 m), length of 41’ (12.5 m), and common width between 8’-10’8” (2.44-3.28 m). Dimensions will vary based on the desired length and height.

Measured illustration of Continuous Escalators (Single) dimensioned with overall width, length, and height
Single Continuous Escalators provide connections to subsequent building levels by connecting them directing with one-way circulation. Unlike discontinuous layouts, continuous designs provide users with quick and efficient vertical circulation between multiple levels.

Continuous Escalators (Single) have a combined height of 29.5’ (9 m), length of 41’ (12.5 m), and common width between 8’-10’8” (2.44-3.28 m). Dimensions will vary based on the desired length and height.

Measured illustration of Continuous Escalators (Single) dimensioned with overall width, length, and height
Continuous Escalators (Single)
Height:
29.5’ | 9 m (Varies)
Width:
8’-10’8” | 2.44-3.28 m (Varies)
Length:
41’ | 12.5 m (Varies)
Depth:
Weight:
Area:

Direction: One-way, single vertical direction
Circulation: Efficient, fast, direct
Uses:
Small department stores, commercial retail

Details & Downloads

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

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