Rays | Batoidea

Rays | Batoidea

Description
Description

Batoidea, or rays, are the largest group of fish whose bodies are made out of cartilage instead of bones—similar to their relatives the shark. Rays are easily identifiable by their flat bodies with elongated fins attached to their heads, and gills placed on their underbellies. There are three groups of rays, the Manta ray, Stingray, and the Spotted Eagleray. All rays have a tail with a poisonous barb on the end that is used for self-protection and can cause serious harm or even death in its target. Some rays are shy while others are sociable, they live in sandy areas, open water, or coral reefs, and can be found in every ocean.

Anatomy
Anatomy

Rays, part of the Batoidea family, possess a unique, flattened body with pectoral fins fused to their heads, creating a distinctive 'wing-like' appearance. Unlike the typical fish shape, their anatomy is adapted for a life on the ocean floor. Rays glide gracefully through water with undulating movements of their wide fins, resembling underwater flight. They lack vocal cords for speech but communicate through electrical signals and body language. With eyes atop their bodies and mouths underneath, they're well-equipped for bottom-feeding. Their senses are acute; they utilize a specialized system, ampullae of Lorenzini, to detect the electric fields of prey, making them effective hunters.

Human Interaction
Human Interaction

Humans have long been fascinated by rays, with their graceful movements inspiring admiration and featuring in oceanic documentaries and aquariums worldwide. Historically, rays have been hunted for their meat, skin, and even cartilage for various uses. In modern times, rays have gained significant attention in pop culture, often portrayed as gentle giants of the sea in films like "Finding Nemo."

Sadly, many species face threats from overfishing and habitat loss, leading to a decline in their populations. Recognizing their ecological importance, conservation efforts have intensified, with initiatives aimed at protecting their habitats, regulating fishing practices, and raising public awareness about their conservation status.

Common Questions
Common Questions
What do rays eat?

Most ray species consume a carnivorous diet. The diet of rays affects their physical attributes such as their shape and colors. They tend to eat animals that live on or beneath the sand such as worms, clams, oysters, snails, and shrimp. Rays may also eat small fish and squids.

How big do rays get?

Rays may reach a wingspan ranging from 12 inches (31 cm) in a yellow stingray and up to 23 feet (7 m) in manta rays. Manta rays can reach a weight of up to 2 tons. Females typically are larger than males in order to accommodate their offspring during pregnancy.

Why do rays jump?

Rays jump out of the water to eat or avoid getting eaten by a predator. If they are being chased by a predator, they may jump out of the water to confuse their chaser. At times they may be startled by a motorboat which causes them to jump as a response.

Animals

* Under Development *

12”-18” | 30.5-46 cm
11.4”-17.7” | 29-45 cm (Disc)
6.6-13.2 lb | 3-6 kg
8-10 years
Atlantic Stingray
46.000
45.000
6.000
10.00
1705
GUIDE
3D
Atlantic Stingray
13”-21” | 33-53 cm
19.3”-30.3” | 49-77 cm
30-40 lb | 13.6-18 kg
5-8 years
Clearnose Skate
53.000
77.000
18.000
8.00
1940
GUIDE
3D
Clearnose Skate
10.2”-18.1” | 26-46 cm
16”-28” | 41-71 cm
13.2-28.7 lb | 6-13 kg
16-24 years
Coffin Ray
46.000
71.000
13.000
24.00
2800
GUIDE
3D
Coffin Ray
24”-33” | 61-84 cm
14.6”-20.5” | 37-52 cm (Disc)
11-32 lb | 5-14.5 kg
15-20 years
Common Eagle Ray
84.000
52.000
14.500
20.00
25500
GUIDE
3D
Common Eagle Ray
9.8”-22” | 25-56 cm
30”-64” | 76-163 cm
55-65 lb | 25-29.5 kg
16-24 years
Common Guitarfish
56.000
163.000
29.500
24.00
7310
GUIDE
3D
Common Guitarfish
4.9’-6.6’ | 1.5-2 m
6.6’-9.4’ | 2-2.85 m (Total)
220-330 lb | 100-150 kg
50-55 years
Common Skate
200.000
285.000
150.000
55.00
1600
GUIDE
3D
Common Skate
18”-55” | 46-140 cm
14.6”-44.5” | 37-113 cm (Disc)
31-70.5 lb | 14-32 kg
15-21 years
Common Stingray
140.000
113.000
32.000
21.00
357700
GUIDE
3D
Common Stingray
7.9”-16.1” | 20-41 cm
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm
11-22 lb | 5-10 kg
10-15 years
Common Torpedo
41.000
61.000
10.000
15.00
550
GUIDE
3D
Common Torpedo
30”-45” | 76-114 cm
18.9”-28.3” | 48-72 cm (Disc)
26.5-50.7 lb | 12-23 kg
13-18 years
Cownose Ray
114.000
72.000
23.000
18.00
12200
GUIDE
3D
Cownose Ray
9’-17’ | 2.74-5.18 m
5.3’-10.17’ | 1.61-3.10 m
661-794 lb | 300-360 kg
15-20 years
Devil Fish
518.000
310.000
360.000
20.00
19500
GUIDE
3D
Devil Fish
6.25’-8’ | 1.91-2.44 m
6.6’-8.5’ | 2-2.6 m (Disc)
794-1,323 lb | 360-600 kg
5-10 years
Giant Freshwater Stingray
244.000
260.000
600.000
10.00
2620
GUIDE
3D
Giant Freshwater Stingray
33.3”-40.6” | 77-103 cm
6.75’-8.83’ | 2.06-2.69 m
275-507 lb | 125-230 kg
16-20 years
Giant Guitarfish
103.000
269.000
230.000
20.00
780
GUIDE
3D
Giant Guitarfish
15’-23’ | 4.6-7 m
15’-23’ | 4.6-7 m
5,300-6,600 lb | 2,400-3,000 kg
18-20 years
Giant Oceanic Manta Ray
700.000
700.000
3000.000
20.00
8900
GUIDE
3D
Giant Oceanic Manta Ray
9.83’-11.5’ | 3-3.5 m
5’-5.75’ | 1.52-1.75 m
1,543-3,086 lb | 700-1,400 kg
40-50 years
Reef Manta Ray
350.000
175.000
1400.000
50.00
2920
GUIDE
3D
Reef Manta Ray
31.1”-46.5” | 79-118 cm
6’-8.83’ | 1.83-2.69 m
187-298 lb | 85-135 kg
10-25 years
Shark Ray
118.000
269.000
135.000
25.00
3350
GUIDE
3D
Shark Ray
11.8”-22” | 30-56 cm
30”-54” | 76-137 cm
40-48.5 lb | 18-22 kg
11-16 years
Shovelnose Guitarfish
56.000
137.000
22.000
16.00
2810
GUIDE
3D
Shovelnose Guitarfish
24”-60” | 61-152 cm
20.5”-52.2” | 52-130 cm (Disc)
160-215 lb | 73-98 kg
12-17 years
Southern Stingray
152.000
130.000
98.000
17.00
2920
GUIDE
3D
Southern Stingray
9’-10’ | 2.74-3.05 m
5.33’-6’ | 1.62-1.84 m
397-507 lb | 180-230 kg
15-20 years
Spotted Eagle Ray
305.000
184.000
230.000
20.00
11500
GUIDE
3D
Spotted Eagle Ray
Giant Freshwater Stingray (Urogymnus polylepis)
Scale illustration of an average Giant Freshwater Stingray compared to a human and similar rays

The giant freshwater stingray (Himantura chaophraya) is a mysterious fish with very little known about it because it loves to bury itself in the mud at river beds and is also difficult to angle. However, what we know of this fish is it is inquisitive and non-aggressive but can unleash powerful stings that can pierce bone and skin. It's in the family Dasyatidae and presumed to be the largest freshwater fish in Southeast Asia and Borneo rivers and estuaries. The giant freshwater stingray is thin, with an expanded anterior oval pectoral fin disc showing a whip-like tail lacking fin folds, and pointed snout.

Giant Freshwater Stingrays have a total width between 6.25’-8’ (1.91-2.44 m) and overall disc length of 6.6’-8.5’ (2-2.6 m). The typical weight of the Giant Freshwater Stingray is in the range of 794-1,323 lb (360-600 kg). Giant Freshwater Stingrays have lifespans between 5-10 years.

Pair of elevation illustrations of the Giant Freshwater Stingray seen from the side and top
The giant freshwater stingray (Himantura chaophraya) is a mysterious fish with very little known about it because it loves to bury itself in the mud at river beds and is also difficult to angle. However, what we know of this fish is it is inquisitive and non-aggressive.

Giant Freshwater Stingrays have a total width between 6.25’-8’ (1.91-2.44 m) and overall disc length of 6.6’-8.5’ (2-2.6 m). The typical weight of the Giant Freshwater Stingray is in the range of 794-1,323 lb (360-600 kg). Giant Freshwater Stingrays have lifespans between 5-10 years.

Pair of elevation illustrations of the Giant Freshwater Stingray seen from the side and top
Giant Freshwater Stingray (Urogymnus polylepis)
Height:
Width:
6.25’-8’ | 1.91-2.44 m
Length:
6.6’-8.5’ | 2-2.6 m (Disc)
Depth:
Weight:
794-1,323 lb | 360-600 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 1.8-2.5x body length

Scientific Name
Urogymnus polylepis
Lifespan
5-10 years

Drawings include:

Giant Freshwater Stingray side elevation, front, top

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Clearnose Skate (Raja eglanteria)
Comparison drawing of the Clearnose Skate compared to other similar rays and a person

The clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria) breaks the record for several things! First, for its queer locomotion method called ”true punting.” Second, for a tail consuming half its body length. Third, instead of having stinging spines, they have blunt lines of thorns at the center of their backs and tails plus rhombic disc-shaped body with right-angled pectoral fin and snout. These demersal creatures also are oviparous, change habitat and depth by seasons, and are separated from other skates by a mottled dorsal surface and snout with translucent patches. The clearnose skate or summer skate or brier skate is cataloged under the family Raja; inhabiting the Atlantic Oceans and Gulf coast.

Clearnose Skates have a total width between 13”-21” (33-53 cm) and overall length of 19.3”-30.3” (49-77 cm). The typical weight of the Clearnose Skate is in the range of 30-40 lb (13.6-18 kg). Clearnose Skates have lifespans between 5-8 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Clearnose Skate viewed from the side and top
The clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria) breaks the record for several things! First, for its queer locomotion method called ”true punting.” Second, for a tail consuming half its body length. Third, instead of having stinging spines, they have blunt lines of thorns at the center of their backs.

Clearnose Skates have a total width between 13”-21” (33-53 cm) and overall length of 19.3”-30.3” (49-77 cm). The typical weight of the Clearnose Skate is in the range of 30-40 lb (13.6-18 kg). Clearnose Skates have lifespans between 5-8 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Clearnose Skate viewed from the side and top
Clearnose Skate (Raja eglanteria)
Height:
Width:
13”-21” | 33-53 cm
Length:
19.3”-30.3” | 49-77 cm
Depth:
Weight:
30-40 lb | 13.6-18 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Raja eglanteria
Lifespan
5-8 years

Drawings include:

Clearnose Skate side elevation, front, top

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Common Torpedo (Torpedo torpedo)
Measured comparison illustration of the size of a Common Torpedo to a typical person and similar rays

The common torpedo (Torpedo torpedo) would have resembled a torpedo were it not for its pectoral fin disc that is short and near disc-like. Their tail is thick, showing a pair of relatively equal size dorsal fins, and large caudal fins. The common torpedo belongs to the family Torpedinidae, national to the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. It is also called eyed electric ray or ocellate torpedo with the blue spots on its back plus the small knob present on the spiracles rims separating it from other rays. This solitary but nocturnal predator ambushes prey but on defense or attack mode, produces an electric shock.

Common Torpedos have a total width between 7.9”-16.1” (20-41 cm) and overall length of 12”-24” (30.5-61 cm). The typical weight of the Common Torpedo is in the range of 11-22 lb (5-10 kg). Common Torpedos have lifespans between 10-15 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Common Torpedo in top and side poses
The common torpedo (Torpedo torpedo) would have resembled a torpedo were it not for its pectoral fin disc that is short and near disc-like. Their tail is thick, showing a pair of relatively equal size dorsal fins, and large caudal fins. The common torpedo belongs to the family Torpedinidae.

Common Torpedos have a total width between 7.9”-16.1” (20-41 cm) and overall length of 12”-24” (30.5-61 cm). The typical weight of the Common Torpedo is in the range of 11-22 lb (5-10 kg). Common Torpedos have lifespans between 10-15 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Common Torpedo in top and side poses
Common Torpedo (Torpedo torpedo)
Height:
Width:
7.9”-16.1” | 20-41 cm
Length:
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm
Depth:
Weight:
11-22 lb | 5-10 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Torpedo torpedo
Lifespan
10-15 years

Drawings include:

Common Torpedo side elevation, front, top

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Coffin Ray (Hypnos monopterygius)
Comparison drawing of the Coffin Ray compared to other similar rays and a person

The Australian numbfish or the coffin ray (Hypnos monopterygius), is native to Australia’s waters. It loves sandy and muddy habitats of inshore water. Like other rays, the coffin ray is sluggish, nocturnal, exhibits viviparity, and produces a powerful electric shock in defense and attack mode. Alternatively, the coffin ray can also be recognized by its extremely shorter tail, enlarged pectoral fin, diminutive dorsal, and caudal fins in its posterior giving it a pear-like shape. The fish is a representative of the family Hypnidae possessing tiny eyes, but with a large distensible mouth and brown coats.

Coffin Rays have a total width between 10.2”-18.1” (26-46 cm) and overall length of 16”-28” (41-71 cm). The typical weight of the Coffin Ray is in the range of 13.2-28.7 lb (6-13 kg). Coffin Rays have lifespans between 16-24 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Coffin Ray viewed from the side and top
The Australian numbfish or the coffin ray (Hypnos monopterygius), is native to Australia’s waters. It loves sandy and muddy habitats of inshore water. Like other rays, the coffin ray is sluggish, nocturnal, exhibits viviparity, and produces a powerful electric shock in defense and attack mode.

Coffin Rays have a total width between 10.2”-18.1” (26-46 cm) and overall length of 16”-28” (41-71 cm). The typical weight of the Coffin Ray is in the range of 13.2-28.7 lb (6-13 kg). Coffin Rays have lifespans between 16-24 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Coffin Ray viewed from the side and top
Coffin Ray (Hypnos monopterygius)
Height:
Width:
10.2”-18.1” | 26-46 cm
Length:
16”-28” | 41-71 cm
Depth:
Weight:
13.2-28.7 lb | 6-13 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Hypnos monopterygius
Lifespan
16-24 years

Drawings include:

Coffin Ray side elevation, front, top

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Common Eagle Ray (Myliobatis aquila)
Measured comparison illustration of the size of a Common Eagle Ray to a typical person and similar rays

From a distance, you may confuse the common eagle ray (Myliobatis Aquila) to be an eagle until you see its slender long tail with a large spine, single dorsal fin, and triangular pectoral fin making the fish mirror a rhomboid disc. These ovoviviparous animals love to school in bays, estuaries, and lagoons. The common eagle fish fit into the family Myliobatidae and are also called spotted eagle ray, toadfish, eagle ray, mill skate, sea eagle, and miller. It is a popular recreational fish in the Mediterranean Sea, Southwestern Indian Ocean, and the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The sharp spine at the base of the tail may look dangerous but harmless.

Common Eagle Rays have a total width between 24”-33” (61-84 cm) and overall disc length of 14.6”-20.5” (37-52 cm). The typical weight of the Common Eagle Ray is in the range of 11-32 lb (5-14.5 kg). Common Eagle Rays have lifespans between 15-20 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Common Eagle Ray in top and side poses
From a distance, you may confuse the common eagle ray (Myliobatis Aquila) to be an eagle until you see its slender long tail with a large spine, single dorsal fin, and triangular pectoral fin making the fish mirror a rhomboid disc. These ovoviviparous animals love to school in bays and estuaries.

Common Eagle Rays have a total width between 24”-33” (61-84 cm) and overall disc length of 14.6”-20.5” (37-52 cm). The typical weight of the Common Eagle Ray is in the range of 11-32 lb (5-14.5 kg). Common Eagle Rays have lifespans between 15-20 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Common Eagle Ray in top and side poses
Common Eagle Ray (Myliobatis aquila)
Height:
Width:
24”-33” | 61-84 cm
Length:
14.6”-20.5” | 37-52 cm (Disc)
Depth:
Weight:
11-32 lb | 5-14.5 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 2.5-3x disc width

Scientific Name
Myliobatis aquila
Lifespan
15-20 years

Drawings include:

Common Eagle Ray side elevation, front, top

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