Batoidea, or rays, are the largest group of fish whose bodies are made out of cartilage instead of bones—similar to their relatives the shark. Rays are easily identifiable by their flat bodies with elongated fins attached to their heads, and gills placed on their underbellies. There are three groups of rays, the Manta ray, Stingray, and the Spotted Eagleray. All rays have a tail with a poisonous barb on the end that is used for self-protection and can cause serious harm or even death in its target. Some rays are shy while others are sociable, they live in sandy areas, open water, or coral reefs, and can be found in every ocean.

What do rays eat?

Most ray species consume a carnivorous diet. The diet of rays affects their physical attributes such as their shape and colors. They tend to eat animals that live on or beneath the sand such as worms, clams, oysters, snails, and shrimp. Rays may also eat small fish and squids.

How big do rays get?

Rays may reach a wingspan ranging from 12 inches (31 cm) in a yellow stingray and up to 23 feet (7 m) in manta rays. Manta rays can reach a weight of up to 2 tons. Females typically are larger than males in order to accommodate their offspring during pregnancy.

Why do rays jump?

Rays jump out of the water to eat or avoid getting eaten by a predator. If they are being chased by a predator, they may jump out of the water to confuse their chaser. At times they may be startled by a motorboat which causes them to jump as a response.

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Rays Guides
Browse through our curated Rays Guides for additional categorizations, tips, details, variations, styles, and histories of Rays. Guides provide additional insights into the unique properties and shared relationships between elements.
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12”-18” | 30.5-46 cm
11.4”-17.7” | 29-45 cm (Disc)
6.6-13.2 lb | 3-6 kg
8-10 years
Atlantic Stingray
46.000
45.000
6.000
10.00
1705
3D
Atlantic Stingray
13”-21” | 33-53 cm
19.3”-30.3” | 49-77 cm
30-40 lb | 13.6-18 kg
5-8 years
Clearnose Skate
53.000
77.000
18.000
8.00
1940
3D
Clearnose Skate
10.2”-18.1” | 26-46 cm
16”-28” | 41-71 cm
13.2-28.7 lb | 6-13 kg
16-24 years
Coffin Ray
46.000
71.000
13.000
24.00
2800
3D
Coffin Ray
24”-33” | 61-84 cm
14.6”-20.5” | 37-52 cm (Disc)
11-32 lb | 5-14.5 kg
15-20 years
Common Eagle Ray
84.000
52.000
14.500
20.00
25500
3D
Common Eagle Ray
9.8”-22” | 25-56 cm
30”-64” | 76-163 cm
55-65 lb | 25-29.5 kg
16-24 years
Common Guitarfish
56.000
163.000
29.500
24.00
7310
3D
Common Guitarfish
4.9’-6.6’ | 1.5-2 m
6.6’-9.4’ | 2-2.85 m (Total)
220-330 lb | 100-150 kg
50-55 years
Common Skate
200.000
285.000
150.000
55.00
1600
3D
Common Skate
18”-55” | 46-140 cm
14.6”-44.5” | 37-113 cm (Disc)
31-70.5 lb | 14-32 kg
15-21 years
Common Stingray
140.000
113.000
32.000
21.00
357700
3D
Common Stingray
7.9”-16.1” | 20-41 cm
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm
11-22 lb | 5-10 kg
10-15 years
Common Torpedo
41.000
61.000
10.000
15.00
550
3D
Common Torpedo
30”-45” | 76-114 cm
18.9”-28.3” | 48-72 cm (Disc)
26.5-50.7 lb | 12-23 kg
13-18 years
Cownose Ray
114.000
72.000
23.000
18.00
12200
3D
Cownose Ray
9’-17’ | 2.74-5.18 m
5.3’-10.17’ | 1.61-3.10 m
661-794 lb | 300-360 kg
15-20 years
Devil Fish
518.000
310.000
360.000
20.00
19500
3D
Devil Fish
6.25’-8’ | 1.91-2.44 m
6.6’-8.5’ | 2-2.6 m (Disc)
794-1,323 lb | 360-600 kg
5-10 years
Giant Freshwater Stingray
244.000
260.000
600.000
10.00
2620
3D
Giant Freshwater Stingray
33.3”-40.6” | 77-103 cm
6.75’-8.83’ | 2.06-2.69 m
275-507 lb | 125-230 kg
16-20 years
Giant Guitarfish
103.000
269.000
230.000
20.00
780
3D
Giant Guitarfish
15’-23’ | 4.6-7 m
15’-23’ | 4.6-7 m
5,300-6,600 lb | 2,400-3,000 kg
18-20 years
Giant Oceanic Manta Ray
700.000
700.000
3000.000
20.00
8900
3D
Giant Oceanic Manta Ray
9.83’-11.5’ | 3-3.5 m
5’-5.75’ | 1.52-1.75 m
1,543-3,086 lb | 700-1,400 kg
40-50 years
Reef Manta Ray
350.000
175.000
1400.000
50.00
2920
3D
Reef Manta Ray
31.1”-46.5” | 79-118 cm
6’-8.83’ | 1.83-2.69 m
187-298 lb | 85-135 kg
10-25 years
Shark Ray
118.000
269.000
135.000
25.00
3350
3D
Shark Ray
11.8”-22” | 30-56 cm
30”-54” | 76-137 cm
40-48.5 lb | 18-22 kg
11-16 years
Shovelnose Guitarfish
56.000
137.000
22.000
16.00
2810
3D
Shovelnose Guitarfish
24”-60” | 61-152 cm
20.5”-52.2” | 52-130 cm (Disc)
160-215 lb | 73-98 kg
12-17 years
Southern Stingray
152.000
130.000
98.000
17.00
2920
3D
Southern Stingray
9’-10’ | 2.74-3.05 m
5.33’-6’ | 1.62-1.84 m
397-507 lb | 180-230 kg
15-20 years
Spotted Eagle Ray
305.000
184.000
230.000
20.00
11500
3D
Spotted Eagle Ray
Common Eagle Ray (Myliobatis aquila)
Measured comparison illustration of the size of a Common Eagle Ray to a typical person and similar rays

From a distance, you may confuse the common eagle ray (Myliobatis Aquila) to be an eagle until you see its slender long tail with a large spine, single dorsal fin, and triangular pectoral fin making the fish mirror a rhomboid disc. These ovoviviparous animals love to school in bays, estuaries, and lagoons. The common eagle fish fit into the family Myliobatidae and are also called spotted eagle ray, toadfish, eagle ray, mill skate, sea eagle, and miller. It is a popular recreational fish in the Mediterranean Sea, Southwestern Indian Ocean, and the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The sharp spine at the base of the tail may look dangerous but harmless.

Common Eagle Rays have a total width between 24”-33” (61-84 cm) and overall disc length of 14.6”-20.5” (37-52 cm). The typical weight of the Common Eagle Ray is in the range of 11-32 lb (5-14.5 kg). Common Eagle Rays have lifespans between 15-20 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Common Eagle Ray in top and side poses
From a distance, you may confuse the common eagle ray (Myliobatis Aquila) to be an eagle until you see its slender long tail with a large spine, single dorsal fin, and triangular pectoral fin making the fish mirror a rhomboid disc. These ovoviviparous animals love to school in bays and estuaries.

Common Eagle Rays have a total width between 24”-33” (61-84 cm) and overall disc length of 14.6”-20.5” (37-52 cm). The typical weight of the Common Eagle Ray is in the range of 11-32 lb (5-14.5 kg). Common Eagle Rays have lifespans between 15-20 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Common Eagle Ray in top and side poses
Common Eagle Ray (Myliobatis aquila)
Height:
Width:
24”-33” | 61-84 cm
Length:
14.6”-20.5” | 37-52 cm (Disc)
Depth:
Weight:
11-32 lb | 5-14.5 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 2.5-3x disc width

Scientific Name
Myliobatis aquila
Lifespan
15-20 years

Drawings include:

Common Eagle Ray side elevation, front, top

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Devil Fish (Mobula mobular)
Measured comparison illustration of the size of a Devil Fish to a typical person and similar rays

You may think it is a bat ‘flying’ in water, but the devilfish (Mobula mobular) is no bat! It fit into the stingray family of Mobulidae colonizing the Mediterranean Sea, and some parts of the Atlantic Ocean in light scattered pods. The devilfish is also called giant devil ray or Mediterranean devil fish, having slender but long tails covered by thorny protrusions. It gives birth to a single offspring and possesses a set of fins. Its distinguishable features comprise a mouth on their head, which is large and wide, and a pair of cephalic fin curled to resemble horns.

Devil Fish have a total width between 9’-17’ (2.74-5.18 m) and overall body length of 5.3’-10.17’ (1.61-3.10 m). The typical weight of the Devil Fish is in the range of 661-794 lb (300-360 kg). Devil Fish have lifespans between 15-20 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Devil Fish in top and side poses
You may think it is a bat ‘flying’ in water, but the devilfish (Mobula mobular) is no bat! It fit into the stingray family of Mobulidae colonizing the Mediterranean Sea, and some parts of the Atlantic Ocean in light scattered pods. The devilfish is also called giant devil ray or Mediterranean devil.

Devil Fish have a total width between 9’-17’ (2.74-5.18 m) and overall body length of 5.3’-10.17’ (1.61-3.10 m). The typical weight of the Devil Fish is in the range of 661-794 lb (300-360 kg). Devil Fish have lifespans between 15-20 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Devil Fish in top and side poses
Devil Fish (Mobula mobular)
Height:
Width:
9’-17’ | 2.74-5.18 m
Length:
5.3’-10.17’ | 1.61-3.10 m
Depth:
Weight:
661-794 lb | 300-360 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 1-1.2x body length

Scientific Name
Mobula mobular
Lifespan
15-20 years

Drawings include:

Devil Fish side elevation, front, top

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Giant Oceanic Manta Ray (Mobula birostris)
Size comparison diagram of a Manta Ray compared to a scuba diver with dimensions for overall width

If you are looking for an intelligent Manta ray, then the giant oceanic manta ray (Manta birostris) should be your best take. It is regarded as the largest ray, besides with the largest brain-to-size ratio. Like other mantas, it bears two cephalic fins resembling horns on their heads and a representative of the family Mobulidae. Aside from that, it spots two large triangular pectoral fins, body flattened, smooth skin having conical and ridge-shaped tubercles scattering, and live in solitary or prefer small schools. These filter feeders love to return to the same cleaning stations on coral reefs for the removal of dead skin cells and parasites by cleaner fish.

Manta Rays have an overall length between 15’-23’ (4.6-7 m) and a width of 15’-23’ (4.6-7 m). An average Manta Ray weighs between 5,300-6,600 lb (2,400-3,000 kg) and has a typical lifespan of 18-20 years.

Collection of illustrations of Manta Rays seen from the top, side, bottom and front views
If you are looking for an intelligent Manta ray, then the giant oceanic manta ray (Manta birostris) should be your best take. It is regarded as the largest ray, besides with the largest brain-to-size ratio. Like other mantas, it bears two cephalic fins resembling horns on their heads.

Manta Rays have an overall length between 15’-23’ (4.6-7 m) and a width of 15’-23’ (4.6-7 m). An average Manta Ray weighs between 5,300-6,600 lb (2,400-3,000 kg) and has a typical lifespan of 18-20 years.

Collection of illustrations of Manta Rays seen from the top, side, bottom and front views
Giant Oceanic Manta Ray (Mobula birostris)
Height:
Width:
15’-23’ | 4.6-7 m
Length:
15’-23’ | 4.6-7 m
Depth:
Weight:
5,300-6,600 lb | 2,400-3,000 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Mobula birostris
Lifespan
18-20 years

Drawings include:
Manta Ray top, side, front, bottom, swimming

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Coffin Ray (Hypnos monopterygius)
Comparison drawing of the Coffin Ray compared to other similar rays and a person

The Australian numbfish or the coffin ray (Hypnos monopterygius), is native to Australia’s waters. It loves sandy and muddy habitats of inshore water. Like other rays, the coffin ray is sluggish, nocturnal, exhibits viviparity, and produces a powerful electric shock in defense and attack mode. Alternatively, the coffin ray can also be recognized by its extremely shorter tail, enlarged pectoral fin, diminutive dorsal, and caudal fins in its posterior giving it a pear-like shape. The fish is a representative of the family Hypnidae possessing tiny eyes, but with a large distensible mouth and brown coats.

Coffin Rays have a total width between 10.2”-18.1” (26-46 cm) and overall length of 16”-28” (41-71 cm). The typical weight of the Coffin Ray is in the range of 13.2-28.7 lb (6-13 kg). Coffin Rays have lifespans between 16-24 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Coffin Ray viewed from the side and top
The Australian numbfish or the coffin ray (Hypnos monopterygius), is native to Australia’s waters. It loves sandy and muddy habitats of inshore water. Like other rays, the coffin ray is sluggish, nocturnal, exhibits viviparity, and produces a powerful electric shock in defense and attack mode.

Coffin Rays have a total width between 10.2”-18.1” (26-46 cm) and overall length of 16”-28” (41-71 cm). The typical weight of the Coffin Ray is in the range of 13.2-28.7 lb (6-13 kg). Coffin Rays have lifespans between 16-24 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Coffin Ray viewed from the side and top
Coffin Ray (Hypnos monopterygius)
Height:
Width:
10.2”-18.1” | 26-46 cm
Length:
16”-28” | 41-71 cm
Depth:
Weight:
13.2-28.7 lb | 6-13 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Hypnos monopterygius
Lifespan
16-24 years

Drawings include:

Coffin Ray side elevation, front, top

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Common Skate (Dipturus batis)
Measured comparison illustration of the size of a Common Skate to a typical person and similar rays

The largest skate on the planet, the common skate (Dipturus batis) is not popular anymore and is severely endangered because of overfishing in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. It is also called blue skate and belongs to the family Rajidae; preferring to travel in schools of the same sex and age with juveniles preferring shallow waters. The common skate is recognized by a rhombic shaped body with a sharp snout, tail displaying rows of spines and thorns, light blue-grey underside but olive-grey or brown coats. The fish has the speed and flexibility to grab large prey like mackerel.

Common Skates have a total width between 4.9’-6.6’ (1.5-2 m) and overall length of 6.6’-9.4’ (2-2.85 m). The typical weight of the Common Skate is in the range of 220-330 lb (100-150 kg). Common Skates have lifespans between 50-55 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Common Skate in top and side poses
The largest skate on the planet, the common skate (Dipturus batis) is not popular anymore and is severely endangered because of overfishing in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. It is also called blue skate and belongs to the family Rajidae.

Common Skates have a total width between 4.9’-6.6’ (1.5-2 m) and overall length of 6.6’-9.4’ (2-2.85 m). The typical weight of the Common Skate is in the range of 220-330 lb (100-150 kg). Common Skates have lifespans between 50-55 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Common Skate in top and side poses
Common Skate (Dipturus batis)
Height:
Width:
4.9’-6.6’ | 1.5-2 m
Length:
6.6’-9.4’ | 2-2.85 m (Total)
Depth:
Weight:
220-330 lb | 100-150 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 1.2-1.3x disc width

Scientific Name
Dipturus batis
Lifespan
50-55 years

Drawings include:

Common Skate side elevation, front, top

Details & Downloads

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