Batoidea, or rays, are the largest group of fish whose bodies are made out of cartilage instead of bones—similar to their relatives the shark. Rays are easily identifiable by their flat bodies with elongated fins attached to their heads, and gills placed on their underbellies. There are three groups of rays, the Manta ray, Stingray, and the Spotted Eagleray. All rays have a tail with a poisonous barb on the end that is used for self-protection and can cause serious harm or even death in its target. Some rays are shy while others are sociable, they live in sandy areas, open water, or coral reefs, and can be found in every ocean.

What do rays eat?

Most ray species consume a carnivorous diet. The diet of rays affects their physical attributes such as their shape and colors. They tend to eat animals that live on or beneath the sand such as worms, clams, oysters, snails, and shrimp. Rays may also eat small fish and squids.

How big do rays get?

Rays may reach a wingspan ranging from 12 inches (31 cm) in a yellow stingray and up to 23 feet (7 m) in manta rays. Manta rays can reach a weight of up to 2 tons. Females typically are larger than males in order to accommodate their offspring during pregnancy.

Why do rays jump?

Rays jump out of the water to eat or avoid getting eaten by a predator. If they are being chased by a predator, they may jump out of the water to confuse their chaser. At times they may be startled by a motorboat which causes them to jump as a response.

Rays Guides
Browse through our curated Rays Guides for additional categorizations, tips, details, variations, styles, and histories of Rays. Guides provide additional insights into the unique properties and shared relationships between elements.
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12”-18” | 30.5-46 cm
11.4”-17.7” | 29-45 cm (Disc)
6.6-13.2 lb | 3-6 kg
8-10 years
Atlantic Stingray
46.000
45.000
6.000
10.00
1705
3D
Atlantic Stingray
13”-21” | 33-53 cm
19.3”-30.3” | 49-77 cm
30-40 lb | 13.6-18 kg
5-8 years
Clearnose Skate
53.000
77.000
18.000
8.00
1940
3D
Clearnose Skate
10.2”-18.1” | 26-46 cm
16”-28” | 41-71 cm
13.2-28.7 lb | 6-13 kg
16-24 years
Coffin Ray
46.000
71.000
13.000
24.00
2800
3D
Coffin Ray
24”-33” | 61-84 cm
14.6”-20.5” | 37-52 cm (Disc)
11-32 lb | 5-14.5 kg
15-20 years
Common Eagle Ray
84.000
52.000
14.500
20.00
25500
3D
Common Eagle Ray
9.8”-22” | 25-56 cm
30”-64” | 76-163 cm
55-65 lb | 25-29.5 kg
16-24 years
Common Guitarfish
56.000
163.000
29.500
24.00
7310
3D
Common Guitarfish
4.9’-6.6’ | 1.5-2 m
6.6’-9.4’ | 2-2.85 m (Total)
220-330 lb | 100-150 kg
50-55 years
Common Skate
200.000
285.000
150.000
55.00
1600
3D
Common Skate
18”-55” | 46-140 cm
14.6”-44.5” | 37-113 cm (Disc)
31-70.5 lb | 14-32 kg
15-21 years
Common Stingray
140.000
113.000
32.000
21.00
357700
3D
Common Stingray
7.9”-16.1” | 20-41 cm
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm
11-22 lb | 5-10 kg
10-15 years
Common Torpedo
41.000
61.000
10.000
15.00
550
3D
Common Torpedo
30”-45” | 76-114 cm
18.9”-28.3” | 48-72 cm (Disc)
26.5-50.7 lb | 12-23 kg
13-18 years
Cownose Ray
114.000
72.000
23.000
18.00
12200
3D
Cownose Ray
9’-17’ | 2.74-5.18 m
5.3’-10.17’ | 1.61-3.10 m
661-794 lb | 300-360 kg
15-20 years
Devil Fish
518.000
310.000
360.000
20.00
19500
3D
Devil Fish
6.25’-8’ | 1.91-2.44 m
6.6’-8.5’ | 2-2.6 m (Disc)
794-1,323 lb | 360-600 kg
5-10 years
Giant Freshwater Stingray
244.000
260.000
600.000
10.00
2620
3D
Giant Freshwater Stingray
33.3”-40.6” | 77-103 cm
6.75’-8.83’ | 2.06-2.69 m
275-507 lb | 125-230 kg
16-20 years
Giant Guitarfish
103.000
269.000
230.000
20.00
780
3D
Giant Guitarfish
15’-23’ | 4.6-7 m
15’-23’ | 4.6-7 m
5,300-6,600 lb | 2,400-3,000 kg
18-20 years
Giant Oceanic Manta Ray
700.000
700.000
3000.000
20.00
8900
3D
Giant Oceanic Manta Ray
9.83’-11.5’ | 3-3.5 m
5’-5.75’ | 1.52-1.75 m
1,543-3,086 lb | 700-1,400 kg
40-50 years
Reef Manta Ray
350.000
175.000
1400.000
50.00
2920
3D
Reef Manta Ray
31.1”-46.5” | 79-118 cm
6’-8.83’ | 1.83-2.69 m
187-298 lb | 85-135 kg
10-25 years
Shark Ray
118.000
269.000
135.000
25.00
3350
3D
Shark Ray
11.8”-22” | 30-56 cm
30”-54” | 76-137 cm
40-48.5 lb | 18-22 kg
11-16 years
Shovelnose Guitarfish
56.000
137.000
22.000
16.00
2810
3D
Shovelnose Guitarfish
24”-60” | 61-152 cm
20.5”-52.2” | 52-130 cm (Disc)
160-215 lb | 73-98 kg
12-17 years
Southern Stingray
152.000
130.000
98.000
17.00
2920
3D
Southern Stingray
9’-10’ | 2.74-3.05 m
5.33’-6’ | 1.62-1.84 m
397-507 lb | 180-230 kg
15-20 years
Spotted Eagle Ray
305.000
184.000
230.000
20.00
11500
3D
Spotted Eagle Ray
Clearnose Skate (Raja eglanteria)
Comparison drawing of the Clearnose Skate compared to other similar rays and a person

The clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria) breaks the record for several things! First, for its queer locomotion method called ”true punting.” Second, for a tail consuming half its body length. Third, instead of having stinging spines, they have blunt lines of thorns at the center of their backs and tails plus rhombic disc-shaped body with right-angled pectoral fin and snout. These demersal creatures also are oviparous, change habitat and depth by seasons, and are separated from other skates by a mottled dorsal surface and snout with translucent patches. The clearnose skate or summer skate or brier skate is cataloged under the family Raja; inhabiting the Atlantic Oceans and Gulf coast.

Clearnose Skates have a total width between 13”-21” (33-53 cm) and overall length of 19.3”-30.3” (49-77 cm). The typical weight of the Clearnose Skate is in the range of 30-40 lb (13.6-18 kg). Clearnose Skates have lifespans between 5-8 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Clearnose Skate viewed from the side and top
The clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria) breaks the record for several things! First, for its queer locomotion method called ”true punting.” Second, for a tail consuming half its body length. Third, instead of having stinging spines, they have blunt lines of thorns at the center of their backs.

Clearnose Skates have a total width between 13”-21” (33-53 cm) and overall length of 19.3”-30.3” (49-77 cm). The typical weight of the Clearnose Skate is in the range of 30-40 lb (13.6-18 kg). Clearnose Skates have lifespans between 5-8 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Clearnose Skate viewed from the side and top
Clearnose Skate (Raja eglanteria)
Height:
Width:
13”-21” | 33-53 cm
Length:
19.3”-30.3” | 49-77 cm
Depth:
Weight:
30-40 lb | 13.6-18 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Raja eglanteria
Lifespan
5-8 years

Drawings include:

Clearnose Skate side elevation, front, top

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Atlantic Stingray (Hypanus sabinus)
Comparison drawing of the Atlantic Stingray compared to other similar rays and a person

They may be a danger to careless beach swimmers because of their awful sting, however, the Atlantic stingray (Hypanus Sabinus) sting is not life-threatening. An elongated snout separates it from other stingrays in the same environment of freshwater, brackish water, and oceanic water off the Atlantic coast of North America. This smallest stingray species fits into the family Dasyatidae, having spade-shaped pectoral fins showing concave interior edges and round rims. A blunt but flat face and circular teeth make them settle in shallow water inlets, lakes, and silty beds. These viviparous creatures use electroreceptors with cells for detecting electric fields made by prey.

Atlantic Stingrays have a total width between 12”-18” (30.5-46 cm) and overall disc length of 11.4”-17.7” (29-45 cm). The typical weight of the Atlantic Stingray is in the range of 6.6-13.2 lb (3-6 kg). Atlantic Stingrays have lifespans between 8-10 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Atlantic Stingray viewed from the side and top
They may be a danger to careless beach swimmers because of their awful sting, however, the Atlantic stingray (Hypanus Sabinus) sting is not life-threatening. An elongated snout separates it from other stingrays in the same environment of freshwater, brackish water, and oceanic water.

Atlantic Stingrays have a total width between 12”-18” (30.5-46 cm) and overall disc length of 11.4”-17.7” (29-45 cm). The typical weight of the Atlantic Stingray is in the range of 6.6-13.2 lb (3-6 kg). Atlantic Stingrays have lifespans between 8-10 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Atlantic Stingray viewed from the side and top
Atlantic Stingray (Hypanus sabinus)
Height:
Width:
12”-18” | 30.5-46 cm
Length:
11.4”-17.7” | 29-45 cm (Disc)
Depth:
Weight:
6.6-13.2 lb | 3-6 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 1.7-1.8x disc width

Scientific Name
Hypanus sabinus
Lifespan
8-10 years

Drawings include:

Atlantic Stingray side elevation, front, top

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Common Stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca)
Scale illustration of an average Common Stingray compared to a human and similar rays

Perhaps the most obvious feature in the common stingray (Dasyatis Pastinaca) is the whip-like tail that bends on the upper and lower fins besides its smooth skin, plain-colored body, painful sting but not life-threatening, and slightly bulging snout. The common stingray fits into the family Dasyatidae, preferring shallow but sandy and muddy coastal habitat of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, and Northeastern Atlantic Ocean. The pectoral fin is diamond-shaped but wider rather than being longer. The fish loves to move in schools of the same sex, are edible, especially the wings, while other parts used to produce fishmeal or fish oil.

Common Stingrays have a total width between 18”-55” (46-140 cm) and overall disc length of 14.6”-44.5” (37-113 cm). The typical weight of the Common Stingray is in the range of 31-70.5 lb (14-32 kg). Common Stingrays have lifespans between 15-21 years.

Pair of elevation illustrations of the Common Stingray seen from the side and top
Perhaps the most obvious feature in the common stingray (Dasyatis Pastinaca) is the whip-like tail that bends on the upper and lower fins besides its smooth skin, plain-colored body, painful sting but not life-threatening, and slightly bulging snout.

Common Stingrays have a total width between 18”-55” (46-140 cm) and overall disc length of 14.6”-44.5” (37-113 cm). The typical weight of the Common Stingray is in the range of 31-70.5 lb (14-32 kg). Common Stingrays have lifespans between 15-21 years.

Pair of elevation illustrations of the Common Stingray seen from the side and top
Common Stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca)
Height:
Width:
18”-55” | 46-140 cm
Length:
14.6”-44.5” | 37-113 cm (Disc)
Depth:
Weight:
31-70.5 lb | 14-32 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 1.3-1.5x body length

Scientific Name
Dasyatis pastinaca
Lifespan
15-21 years

Drawings include:

Common Stingray side elevation, front, top

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Southern Stingray (Hypanus americanus)
Measured comparison illustration of the size of a Southern Stingray to a typical person and similar rays

The southern stingray (Hypanus americanus) may be a relative of sharks and skates because it is ovoviviparous and prefers to be in solitary or in small groups. The fish is docile and can be tamed and hand-fed, though its audaciousness makes it avoided in the aquarium business. The southern stingray possesses an indistinct head, a slim tail longer than its body length and may be bent and serrated with a venomous spine for self-defense. It fits in the family Dasyatidae with eyes and spiracles on their heads and a flat diamond-shaped disc. The fish is common to the western Atlantic Ocean, mainly in equatorial and subtropical waters.

Southern Stingrays have a total width between 24”-60” (61-152 cm) and overall disc length of 20.5”-52.2” (52-130 cm). The typical weight of the Southern Stingray is in the range of 160-215 lb (73-98 kg). Southern Stingrays have lifespans between 12-17 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Southern Stingray in top and side poses
The southern stingray (Hypanus americanus) may be a relative of sharks and skates because it is ovoviviparous and prefers to be in solitary or in small groups. The fish is docile and can be tamed and hand-fed, though its audaciousness makes it avoided in the aquarium business.

Southern Stingrays have a total width between 24”-60” (61-152 cm) and overall disc length of 20.5”-52.2” (52-130 cm). The typical weight of the Southern Stingray is in the range of 160-215 lb (73-98 kg). Southern Stingrays have lifespans between 12-17 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Southern Stingray in top and side poses
Southern Stingray (Hypanus americanus)
Height:
Width:
24”-60” | 61-152 cm
Length:
20.5”-52.2” | 52-130 cm (Disc)
Depth:
Weight:
160-215 lb | 73-98 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 1.8-2x body length

Scientific Name
Hypanus americanus
Lifespan
12-17 years

Drawings include:

Southern Stingray side elevation, front, top

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Devil Fish (Mobula mobular)
Measured comparison illustration of the size of a Devil Fish to a typical person and similar rays

You may think it is a bat ‘flying’ in water, but the devilfish (Mobula mobular) is no bat! It fit into the stingray family of Mobulidae colonizing the Mediterranean Sea, and some parts of the Atlantic Ocean in light scattered pods. The devilfish is also called giant devil ray or Mediterranean devil fish, having slender but long tails covered by thorny protrusions. It gives birth to a single offspring and possesses a set of fins. Its distinguishable features comprise a mouth on their head, which is large and wide, and a pair of cephalic fin curled to resemble horns.

Devil Fish have a total width between 9’-17’ (2.74-5.18 m) and overall body length of 5.3’-10.17’ (1.61-3.10 m). The typical weight of the Devil Fish is in the range of 661-794 lb (300-360 kg). Devil Fish have lifespans between 15-20 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Devil Fish in top and side poses
You may think it is a bat ‘flying’ in water, but the devilfish (Mobula mobular) is no bat! It fit into the stingray family of Mobulidae colonizing the Mediterranean Sea, and some parts of the Atlantic Ocean in light scattered pods. The devilfish is also called giant devil ray or Mediterranean devil.

Devil Fish have a total width between 9’-17’ (2.74-5.18 m) and overall body length of 5.3’-10.17’ (1.61-3.10 m). The typical weight of the Devil Fish is in the range of 661-794 lb (300-360 kg). Devil Fish have lifespans between 15-20 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Devil Fish in top and side poses
Devil Fish (Mobula mobular)
Height:
Width:
9’-17’ | 2.74-5.18 m
Length:
5.3’-10.17’ | 1.61-3.10 m
Depth:
Weight:
661-794 lb | 300-360 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 1-1.2x body length

Scientific Name
Mobula mobular
Lifespan
15-20 years

Drawings include:

Devil Fish side elevation, front, top

Details & Downloads

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