Cartilaginous Fish | Chondrichthyes

Chondrichthyes refers to a class of fish or vertebrates that feature paired fins and an internal skeleton composed of cartilage. Noticeable characteristics of cartilaginous fish include the capability of numerous species to breathe through gills and spiracles, skin dressed in dermal denticles to give protection, a small brain with several sensory organs, and an adaptive immune system. Additionally, these fish lack swim bladders, are often predatory, and show jaws and paired appendages. They are likewise an excellent source of food for humans. Chondrichthyes are further divided into Elasmobranchii and Holocephali and can be found both in freshwater and marine environments.

How are cartilaginous fish different from bony fish?

Cartilaginous fish are different from bony fish through their skeletons that are made of mostly cartilage as opposed to bony fish which have skeletons composed mostly of bone. Both cartilaginous and bony fish fall under different types of taxonomic groups. Cartilaginous fish are part of the Chondrichthyes while bony fish are of the Osteichthyes class.

How do cartilaginous fish maintain buoyancy?

Cartilaginous fish maintain their buoyancy through their liver which is filled with oil. The oil within their liver helps cartilaginous fish lighten their body to keep it from sinking downwards into the body of water, while also helping the fish save energy to keep moving and direct themselves.

Do cartilaginous fish have jaws?

Cartilaginous fish have movable jaws that are equipped with fully developed teeth. The mouth of cartilaginous fish is typically located under their head. Cartilaginous fish only have one set of oral jaws that are made of cartilage. The jaws of cartilaginous fish are articulated and opposed vertically.

* Under Development *

Related Tags
Cartilaginous Fish Guides
Browse through our curated Cartilaginous Fish Guides for additional categorizations, tips, details, variations, styles, and histories of Cartilaginous Fish. Guides provide additional insights into the unique properties and shared relationships between elements.

Cartilaginous Fish

Thank you! Your submission has been received!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.
34”-47” | 86-119 cm
5.92’-7.83’ | 1.8-2.39 m
70-180 lb | 32-82 kg
25-35 years
Angel Shark
119.000
239.000
82.000
35.00
21200
3D
Angel Shark
12”-18” | 30.5-46 cm
11.4”-17.7” | 29-45 cm (Disc)
6.6-13.2 lb | 3-6 kg
8-10 years
Atlantic Stingray
46.000
45.000
6.000
10.00
1705
3D
Atlantic Stingray
26”-49” | 66-125 cm
6.6-8.8 lb | 3-4 kg
10-15 years
Australian Ghost Shark
125.000
4.000
15.00
550
3D
Australian Ghost Shark
2”-2.4” | 5-6 cm
31”-34” | 79-86 cm
10-19 lb | 4.5-9 kg
9-15 years
Bahamas Sawshark
6.000
86.000
9.000
15.00
150
3D
Bahamas Sawshark
22’-35’ | 6.7-10.7 m
8800-13200 lb | 4000-6000 kg
Up to 50 years
Basking Shark
1070.000
6000.000
50.00
57000
3D
Basking Shark
7.5”-11.4” | 19-29 cm
4.92’-8’ | 1.5-2.44 m
150-270 lb | 68-122 kg
12-16 years
Blacktip Shark
29.000
244.000
122.000
16.00
19200
3D
Blacktip Shark
8.5’-13’ | 2.6-4 m
120-400 lb | 54-181 kg
15-20 years
Blue Shark
400.000
181.000
20.00
16000
3D
Blue Shark
12.2”-25.2” | 31-64 cm
5’-10’ | 1.52-3.05 m
300-440 lb | 136-200 kg
15-25 years
Bramble Shark
64.000
305.000
200.000
25.00
1850
3D
Bramble Shark
7’-11.5” | 2.1-3.5 m
400-700 lb | 181-318 kg
12-25 years
Bull Shark
350.000
318.000
25.00
56000
3D
Bull Shark
13”-21” | 33-53 cm
19.3”-30.3” | 49-77 cm
30-40 lb | 13.6-18 kg
5-8 years
Clearnose Skate
53.000
77.000
18.000
8.00
1940
3D
Clearnose Skate
10.2”-18.1” | 26-46 cm
16”-28” | 41-71 cm
13.2-28.7 lb | 6-13 kg
16-24 years
Coffin Ray
46.000
71.000
13.000
24.00
2800
3D
Coffin Ray
24”-33” | 61-84 cm
14.6”-20.5” | 37-52 cm (Disc)
11-32 lb | 5-14.5 kg
15-20 years
Common Eagle Ray
84.000
52.000
14.500
20.00
25500
3D
Common Eagle Ray
9.8”-22” | 25-56 cm
30”-64” | 76-163 cm
55-65 lb | 25-29.5 kg
16-24 years
Common Guitarfish
56.000
163.000
29.500
24.00
7310
3D
Common Guitarfish
4.9’-6.6’ | 1.5-2 m
6.6’-9.4’ | 2-2.85 m (Total)
220-330 lb | 100-150 kg
50-55 years
Common Skate
200.000
285.000
150.000
55.00
1600
3D
Common Skate
18”-55” | 46-140 cm
14.6”-44.5” | 37-113 cm (Disc)
31-70.5 lb | 14-32 kg
15-21 years
Common Stingray
140.000
113.000
32.000
21.00
357700
3D
Common Stingray
7.9”-16.1” | 20-41 cm
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm
11-22 lb | 5-10 kg
10-15 years
Common Torpedo
41.000
61.000
10.000
15.00
550
3D
Common Torpedo
30”-45” | 76-114 cm
18.9”-28.3” | 48-72 cm (Disc)
26.5-50.7 lb | 12-23 kg
13-18 years
Cownose Ray
114.000
72.000
23.000
18.00
12200
3D
Cownose Ray
9’-17’ | 2.74-5.18 m
5.3’-10.17’ | 1.61-3.10 m
661-794 lb | 300-360 kg
15-20 years
Devil Fish
518.000
310.000
360.000
20.00
19500
3D
Devil Fish
1.8”-3” | 4.5-7.5 cm
4’-6.67’ | 1.22-2.03 m
200-300 lb | 91-136 kg
20-25 years
Frilled Shark
7.500
203.000
136.000
25.00
121100
3D
Frilled Shark
6.25’-8’ | 1.91-2.44 m
6.6’-8.5’ | 2-2.6 m (Disc)
794-1,323 lb | 360-600 kg
5-10 years
Giant Freshwater Stingray
244.000
260.000
600.000
10.00
2620
3D
Giant Freshwater Stingray
33.3”-40.6” | 77-103 cm
6.75’-8.83’ | 2.06-2.69 m
275-507 lb | 125-230 kg
16-20 years
Giant Guitarfish
103.000
269.000
230.000
20.00
780
3D
Giant Guitarfish
15’-23’ | 4.6-7 m
15’-23’ | 4.6-7 m
5,300-6,600 lb | 2,400-3,000 kg
18-20 years
Giant Oceanic Manta Ray
700.000
700.000
3000.000
20.00
8900
3D
Giant Oceanic Manta Ray
5’-12.5’ | 1.5-3.8 m
330-463 lb | 150-210 kg
30-35 years
Goblin Shark
380.000
210.000
35.00
82000
3D
Goblin Shark
21”-34.6” | 53-88 cm
12’-20’ | 3.66-6.1 m
510-1,000 lb | 231-454 kg
20-30 years
Great Hammerhead
88.000
610.000
454.000
30.00
13100
3D
Great Hammerhead
11’-21’ | 3.35-6.4 m
1500-2400 lb | 680-1090 kg
30-70 years
Great White Shark
640.000
1090.000
70.00
133000
3D
Great White Shark
12’-24’ | 3.7-7.3 m
1950-2250 lb | 885-1020 kg
300-500 years
Greenland Shark
730.000
1020.000
500.00
55000
3D
Greenland Shark
6.7”-9” | 17-23 cm
36”-48” | 91-122 cm
20-23 lb | 9-10.4 kg
12-25 years
Horn Shark
23.000
122.000
10.400
25.00
8200
3D
Horn Shark
7.5’-11’ | 2.3-3.4 m
190-400 lb | 86-181 kg
25-35 years
Lemon Shark
340.000
181.000
35.00
27000
3D
Lemon Shark
4’-7’ | 1.2-2.1 m
35-45 lb | 16-20 kg
20-30 years
Leopard Shark
210.000
20.000
30.00
15000
3D
Leopard Shark
4.3”-5.1” | 11-13 cm
54”-59” | 137-150 cm
20-30 lb | 9-13.6 kg
10-15 years
Longnose Sawshark
13.000
150.000
13.600
15.00
380
3D
Longnose Sawshark
13’-18’ | 4-5.5 m
2000-2700 lb | 907-1225 kg
Unknown
Megamouth Shark
550.000
1225.000
28000
3D
Megamouth Shark
7.5’-10’ | 2.3-3 m
200-330 lb | 91-150 kg
15-25 years
Nurse Shark
300.000
150.000
25.00
35000
3D
Nurse Shark
15.75”-20.5” | 40-52 cm
10’-13’ | 3.05-3.96 m
200-370 lb | 91-168 kg
25-36 years
Oceanic Whitetip Shark
52.000
396.000
168.000
36.00
13250
3D
Oceanic Whitetip Shark
19.3”-24” | 49-61 cm
12’-14.5’ | 3.66-4.42 m
700-1,960 lb | 318-889 kg
40 years (minimum)
Pacific Sleeper Shark
61.000
442.000
889.000
40.00
4550
3D
Pacific Sleeper Shark
7.9”-10.25” | 20-26 cm
54”-66” | 137-168 cm
13-35 lb | 6-16 kg
25-30 years
Port Jackson Shark
26.000
168.000
16.000
30.00
14150
3D
Port Jackson Shark
9.83’-11.5’ | 3-3.5 m
5’-5.75’ | 1.52-1.75 m
1,543-3,086 lb | 700-1,400 kg
40-50 years
Reef Manta Ray
350.000
175.000
1400.000
50.00
2920
3D
Reef Manta Ray
6.5’-10’ | 2-3 m
485-1000 lb | 220-454 kg
20-30 years
Salmon Shark
300.000
454.000
30.00
11000
3D
Salmon Shark
27.2”-33.1” | 69-84 cm
47”-59” | 119-150 cm
27-35 lb | 12-16 kg
25-35 years
Sand Devil
84.000
150.000
16.000
35.00
1190
3D
Sand Devil
7’-10.5’ | 2.1-3.2 m
200-400 lb | 91-182 kg
10-15 years
Sand Tiger Shark
320.000
182.000
15.00
12000
3D
Sand Tiger Shark
31.1”-46.5” | 79-118 cm
6’-8.83’ | 1.83-2.69 m
187-298 lb | 85-135 kg
10-25 years
Shark Ray
118.000
269.000
135.000
25.00
3350
3D
Shark Ray
11.8”-22” | 30-56 cm
30”-54” | 76-137 cm
40-48.5 lb | 18-22 kg
11-16 years
Shovelnose Guitarfish
56.000
137.000
22.000
16.00
2810
3D
Shovelnose Guitarfish
24”-60” | 61-152 cm
20.5”-52.2” | 52-130 cm (Disc)
160-215 lb | 73-98 kg
12-17 years
Southern Stingray
152.000
130.000
98.000
17.00
2920
3D
Southern Stingray
3.1”-5.5” | 8-14 cm
24”-42” | 61-107 cm
8-22 lb | 3.6-10 kg
30-40 years
Spiny Dogfish
14.000
107.000
10.000
40.00
11200
3D
Spiny Dogfish
9’-10’ | 2.74-3.05 m
5.33’-6’ | 1.62-1.84 m
397-507 lb | 180-230 kg
15-20 years
Spotted Eagle Ray
305.000
184.000
230.000
20.00
11500
3D
Spotted Eagle Ray
10.5’-20’ | 3.2-6.1 m
500-775 lb | 227-352 kg
20-50 years
Thresher Shark
610.000
352.000
50.00
30000
3D
Thresher Shark
10’-14’ | 3-4.3 m
850-2000 lb | 385-907 kg
15-30 years
Tiger Shark
430.000
907.000
30.00
69000
3D
Tiger Shark
30’-62’ | 9.1-18.9 m
41000-50000 (20.6-25 tons) | 18600-22675 kg
70-130 years
Whale Shark
1890.000
22675.000
130.00
110000
3D
Whale Shark
6.5’-11.5’ | 2-3.5 m
45-65 lb | 20-30 kg
20-30 years
Zebra Shark
350.000
30.000
30.00
7100
3D
Zebra Shark
Devil Fish (Mobula mobular)
Measured comparison illustration of the size of a Devil Fish to a typical person and similar rays

You may think it is a bat ‘flying’ in water, but the devilfish (Mobula mobular) is no bat! It fit into the stingray family of Mobulidae colonizing the Mediterranean Sea, and some parts of the Atlantic Ocean in light scattered pods. The devilfish is also called giant devil ray or Mediterranean devil fish, having slender but long tails covered by thorny protrusions. It gives birth to a single offspring and possesses a set of fins. Its distinguishable features comprise a mouth on their head, which is large and wide, and a pair of cephalic fin curled to resemble horns.

Devil Fish have a total width between 9’-17’ (2.74-5.18 m) and overall body length of 5.3’-10.17’ (1.61-3.10 m). The typical weight of the Devil Fish is in the range of 661-794 lb (300-360 kg). Devil Fish have lifespans between 15-20 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Devil Fish in top and side poses
You may think it is a bat ‘flying’ in water, but the devilfish (Mobula mobular) is no bat! It fit into the stingray family of Mobulidae colonizing the Mediterranean Sea, and some parts of the Atlantic Ocean in light scattered pods. The devilfish is also called giant devil ray or Mediterranean devil.

Devil Fish have a total width between 9’-17’ (2.74-5.18 m) and overall body length of 5.3’-10.17’ (1.61-3.10 m). The typical weight of the Devil Fish is in the range of 661-794 lb (300-360 kg). Devil Fish have lifespans between 15-20 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Devil Fish in top and side poses
Devil Fish (Mobula mobular)
Height:
Width:
9’-17’ | 2.74-5.18 m
Length:
5.3’-10.17’ | 1.61-3.10 m
Depth:
Weight:
661-794 lb | 300-360 kg
Area:

Tail Length: 1-1.2x body length

Scientific Name
Mobula mobular
Lifespan
15-20 years

Drawings include:

Devil Fish side elevation, front, top

Details & Downloads

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Horn Shark (Heterodontus francisci)
Scale illustration of an average Horn Shark with dimensions for height and length compared to a human

A common characteristic of the Horn Shark (Heterodontus francisci) is that it maintains a particular routine. After scavenging close to the shore, it will return to its usual resting place. It belongs to the bullhead family, slow-moving and nocturnal. It is also called bullhead shark, horned shark, or pig shark. Look for it in the coastal waters of the western coast of North America, where you will identify it by its short blunt head, having ridges over its eyes and two high dorsal fins. These dorsal fins have large spines. The Horn shark is usually brown or gray and may have small dark spots. Besides, it is oviparous and only captured for the aquarium trade.

Horn Sharks have a total length between 36”-48” (91-122 cm) and body width of 6.7”-9” (17-23 cm). The typical weight of the Horn Shark is in the range of 20-23 lb (9-10.4 kg). Horn Sharks have lifespans between 12-25 years.

Series of elevation illustrations of the Horn Shark
A common characteristic of the Horn Shark (Heterodontus francisci) is that it maintains a particular routine. After scavenging close to the shore, it will return to its usual resting place. It belongs to the bullhead family, slow-moving and nocturnal. It is also called bullhead shark.

Horn Sharks have a total length between 36”-48” (91-122 cm) and body width of 6.7”-9” (17-23 cm). The typical weight of the Horn Shark is in the range of 20-23 lb (9-10.4 kg). Horn Sharks have lifespans between 12-25 years.

Series of elevation illustrations of the Horn Shark
Horn Shark (Heterodontus francisci)
Height:
Width:
6.7”-9” | 17-23 cm
Length:
36”-48” | 91-122 cm
Depth:
Weight:
20-23 lb | 9-10.4 kg
Area:
Speed
Scientific Name
Heterodontus francisci
Lifespan
12-25 years

Drawings include:

Horn Shark side elevation, side (perspective), front, top

Details & Downloads

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Whale Shark
Scale illustration of an average Whale Shark with dimensions for height and length compared to a human

The Whale Shark (Rhincodon Typus) is the largest shark in the sea and have a gray-brown skin covered with white spots. They typically live in the tropical oceans and are rarely seen in water with a temperature below 70°F (21°C). Whale sharks are slow-moving and docile.

Whale Sharks are filter feeders, typically eat plankton as well as other small fish, and have about 3,000 small teeth. The average size of their litter is of 12 pups. Whale Sharks are considered in danger of extinction as their current population trend is decreasing.

Whale Sharks have a total length between 30’-62’ (9.1-18.9 m) and an overall weight in the range of 41000-50000 (20.6-25 tons) (18600-22675 kg). The typical lifespan of the Whale Shark is 70-130 years.

Series of elevation illustrations of the Whale Shark
The Whale Shark (Rhincodon Typus) is the largest shark in the sea and have a gray-brown skin covered with white spots. They typically live in the tropical oceans and are rarely seen in water with a temperature below 70°F (21°C). Whale sharks are slow-moving and docile and are endangered.

Whale Sharks have a total length between 30’-62’ (9.1-18.9 m) and an overall weight in the range of 41000-50000 (20.6-25 tons) (18600-22675 kg). The typical lifespan of the Whale Shark is 70-130 years.

Series of elevation illustrations of the Whale Shark
Whale Shark
Height:
Width:
Length:
30’-62’ | 9.1-18.9 m
Depth:
Weight:
41000-50000 (20.6-25 tons) | 18600-22675 kg
Area:
Speed
Scientific Name
Rhincodon typus
Lifespan
70-130 years

Drawings include:

Whale Shark side elevation, side (perspective), front, top

Details & Downloads

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Common Torpedo (Torpedo torpedo)
Measured comparison illustration of the size of a Common Torpedo to a typical person and similar rays

The common torpedo (Torpedo torpedo) would have resembled a torpedo were it not for its pectoral fin disc that is short and near disc-like. Their tail is thick, showing a pair of relatively equal size dorsal fins, and large caudal fins. The common torpedo belongs to the family Torpedinidae, national to the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. It is also called eyed electric ray or ocellate torpedo with the blue spots on its back plus the small knob present on the spiracles rims separating it from other rays. This solitary but nocturnal predator ambushes prey but on defense or attack mode, produces an electric shock.

Common Torpedos have a total width between 7.9”-16.1” (20-41 cm) and overall length of 12”-24” (30.5-61 cm). The typical weight of the Common Torpedo is in the range of 11-22 lb (5-10 kg). Common Torpedos have lifespans between 10-15 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Common Torpedo in top and side poses
The common torpedo (Torpedo torpedo) would have resembled a torpedo were it not for its pectoral fin disc that is short and near disc-like. Their tail is thick, showing a pair of relatively equal size dorsal fins, and large caudal fins. The common torpedo belongs to the family Torpedinidae.

Common Torpedos have a total width between 7.9”-16.1” (20-41 cm) and overall length of 12”-24” (30.5-61 cm). The typical weight of the Common Torpedo is in the range of 11-22 lb (5-10 kg). Common Torpedos have lifespans between 10-15 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Common Torpedo in top and side poses
Common Torpedo (Torpedo torpedo)
Height:
Width:
7.9”-16.1” | 20-41 cm
Length:
12”-24” | 30.5-61 cm
Depth:
Weight:
11-22 lb | 5-10 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Torpedo torpedo
Lifespan
10-15 years

Drawings include:

Common Torpedo side elevation, front, top

Details & Downloads

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Basking Shark
Comparison illustration of the size of a Basking Shark to a typical person

The Basking Shark (Cetorhinus Maximus) is the second largest shark, after the whale shark. It has a gray-brown coloring with marble-like skin pattern. They are found in all temperate oceans of the world. Basking Sharks do not hibernate, are active all year, and do not stay in one place for more than a couple months.

During the winter, Basking Sharks swim to deeper waters. Basking sharks are filter feeders that feed passively while swimming and typically eat zooplankton, copepods, barnacles, decapod larvae, fish eggs, and shrimp. The Basking Shark is considered to be endangered.

Basking Sharks have a total length between 22’-35’ (6.7-10.7 m) and an overall weight in the range of 8800-13200 lb (4000-6000 kg). The typical lifespan of the Basking Shark is Up to 50 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Basking Shark in various poses
The Basking Shark (Cetorhinus Maximus) is the second largest shark, after the whale shark. It has a gray-brown coloring with marble-like skin pattern. They are found in all temperate oceans of the world. Basking Sharks do not hibernate, are active all year, and do not stay in one place for long.

Basking Sharks have a total length between 22’-35’ (6.7-10.7 m) and an overall weight in the range of 8800-13200 lb (4000-6000 kg). The typical lifespan of the Basking Shark is Up to 50 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Basking Shark in various poses
Basking Shark
Height:
Width:
Length:
22’-35’ | 6.7-10.7 m
Depth:
Weight:
8800-13200 lb | 4000-6000 kg
Area:
Speed
Scientific Name
Cetorhinus maximus
Lifespan
Up to 50 years

Drawings include:

Basking Shark side elevation, side (perspective), front, top

Details & Downloads

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Related Animals Collections
Animals