Sharks (Selachii) are one of the oldest animal species on earth having outlived the dinosaurs with fossil records dating them back 400 million years. Most sharks live in saltwater environments, although two species can survive in freshwater and saltwater. In their ecosystems, the carnivorous shark is usually the top of their food chain, but are being threatened by human activities and hunting. The largest fish in the world is the Whale Shark, capable of growing to 40 feet (12.2 m) in length. Sharks have multiple rows of teeth that are embedded in their gums instead of their jaws, and are constantly losing and replacing their teeth—sharks can lose and replace up to 30,000 teeth in their lifetime.

How many bones do sharks have?

Sharks do not have any bones in their bodies, as their skeleton system is made up of cartilage and connective tissue. This classifies them as Chondrichthyes fish. Cartilage is flexible and has about half of the normal density found in bones.

What do sharks eat?

The diet of a shark varies from shark to shark depending on the species, habitat, and available prey. There are over 400 species of sharks. Most sharks are carnivorous and predators, while some are planktivorous. Sharks aren’t picky and are able to adjust their diet to what is available in order to survive.


How do sharks sleep?

It is not known if sharks are able to sleep, but they do seem to have periods of rest. Sharks need to keep water moving over their gills to receive oxygen. Some sharks need to keep moving all the times to keep water over their gills, while others have spiracles, an opening behind each eye, that allows them to breath while they are still.

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Lemon Shark
Comparison illustration of the size of a Lemon Shark to a typical person

Lemon Sharks (Negaprion Brevirostris) are sharks recognizable by their yellow skin that helps them camouflage against the sandy waters of their habitat. They live in subtropical waters and are known to return to specific nursery sites to breed. Lemon Sharks often feed at night and use electroreceptors to find their prey.

They eat a variety of fish, rays, crustaceans, seabirds, and other sharks. Lemon sharks live in groups that allow them to have communication, courtship, and protection among one another. They are near threatened with extinction.

Lemon Sharks have a total length between 7.5’-11’ (2.3-3.4 m) and an overall weight in the range of 190-400 lb (86-181 kg). The typical lifespan of the Lemon Shark is 25-35 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Lemon Shark in various poses
The Lemon Shark (Negaprion Brevirostris) are recognizable by their yellow skin that helps them camouflage against the sandy subtropical waters of their habitat. They are known to return to specific nursery sites to breed. Lemon Sharks often feed at night and use electroreceptors to find their prey.

Lemon Sharks have a total length between 7.5’-11’ (2.3-3.4 m) and an overall weight in the range of 190-400 lb (86-181 kg). The typical lifespan of the Lemon Shark is 25-35 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Lemon Shark in various poses
Lemon Shark
Height:
Width:
Length:
7.5’-11’ | 2.3-3.4 m
Depth:
Weight:
190-400 lb | 86-181 kg
Area:
Speed
Scientific Name
Negaprion brevirostris
Lifespan
25-35 years

Drawings include:

Lemon Shark side elevation, side (perspective), front, top

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Sand Tiger Shark
Scale illustration of an average Sand Tiger Shark with dimensions for height and length compared to a human

The Sand Tiger Shark (Carcharias Taurus), also referred to as the spotted ragged-tooth shark, is a shark species with brown-gray skin with rust color spots on their back and white underside. They are generally found in the shores of subtropical waters like Japan, Australia, South Africa, and the Mediterranean.

Sand Tiger Sharks eat crustaceans, fish, and squid. They are active predators and feed throughout the night by staying close to the bottom. Sand Tiger Sharks are vulnerable to extinction as they have one of the lowest reproduction rates among all sharks.

Sand Tiger Sharks have a total length between 7’-10.5’ (2.1-3.2 m) and an overall weight in the range of 200-400 lb (91-182 kg). The typical lifespan of the Sand Tiger Shark is between 10-15 years.

Series of elevation illustrations of the Sand Tiger Shark
The Sand Tiger Shark (Carcharias Taurus), also referred to as the spotted ragged-tooth shark, has brown-gray skin with rust color spots on their back and white underside. They are generally found in the shores of subtropical waters like Japan, Australia, South Africa, and the Mediterranean.

Sand Tiger Sharks have a total length between 7’-10.5’ (2.1-3.2 m) and an overall weight in the range of 200-400 lb (91-182 kg). The typical lifespan of the Sand Tiger Shark is between 10-15 years.

Series of elevation illustrations of the Sand Tiger Shark
Sand Tiger Shark
Height:
Width:
Length:
7’-10.5’ | 2.1-3.2 m
Depth:
Weight:
200-400 lb | 91-182 kg
Area:
Speed
Scientific Name
Carcharias taurus
Lifespan
10-15 years

Drawings include:

Sand Tiger Shark side elevation, side (perspective), front, top

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Nurse Shark
Dimensioned comparison drawing of the Nurse Shark compared to an average person

Nurse Sharks (Ginglymostoma Cirratum) are a species of shark that moves slowly, are bottom-dwellers, and have a smooth gray-brown skin that sets them apart from other sharks. They live along the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. Nurse sharks ranked fourth in the documented shark attacks to humans.

They are nocturnal and rest along the seafloor during the day. The mouth of the Nurse Shark is filled with thousands of small sharp teeth and their diet consists of shrimp and squid. It is not exactly known what their current population trend is as it has been claimed as data deficient.

Nurse Sharks have a total length between 7.5’-10’ (2.3-3 m) and an overall weight in the range of 200-330 lb (91-150 kg). The typical lifespan of the Nurse Shark is 15-25 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Nurse Shark
Nurse Sharks (Ginglymostoma Cirratum) are a species of shark that moves slowly, are bottom-dwellers, and have a smooth gray-brown skin that sets them apart from other sharks. They live along the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. Nurse sharks ranked fourth in the documented shark attacks.

Nurse Sharks have a total length between 7.5’-10’ (2.3-3 m) and an overall weight in the range of 200-330 lb (91-150 kg). The typical lifespan of the Nurse Shark is 15-25 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Nurse Shark
Nurse Shark
Height:
Width:
Length:
7.5’-10’ | 2.3-3 m
Depth:
Weight:
200-330 lb | 91-150 kg
Area:
Speed
Scientific Name
Ginglymostoma cirratum
Lifespan
15-25 years

Drawings include:

Nurse Shark side elevation, side (perspective), front, top

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Great White Shark
Dimensioned size comparison drawing of a Great White Shark compared to the size of an average human scuba diver

The Great White Shark is a large mackerel shark that is found in coastal surface waters of all the major oceans. The species is also referred to as the great white, white shark, or white pointer for its notable size. Other distinguishing characteristics include its robust, large, conical snout, rows of serrated teeth behind the main ones, and large eyes with deep blue irises.

Further, it displays countershading by having a white underside and grey dorsal area. The great white shark has no natural predators and it is responsible for more recorded human bite incidents than any other shark.

The typical female Great White Shark has an overall length of 15’-21’ (4.57-6.4 m), with males at lengths of 11’-13’ (3.35-3.96 m). An average Great White Shark weighs between 1500-2400 lb (680-1090 kg) and has a typical lifespan of 30-70 years.

Pair of drawings of a Great White Shark as seen from the front and the top views
The Great White Shark is a large mackerel shark that is found in coastal surface waters of all the major oceans. The Great White Shark species is notable for its size and has no natural predators. It is responsible for more recorded human bite incidents than any other shark.

The typical female Great White Shark has an overall length of 15’-21’ (4.57-6.4 m), with males at lengths of 11’-13’ (3.35-3.96 m). An average Great White Shark weighs between 1500-2400 lb (680-1090 kg) and has a typical lifespan of 30-70 years.

Pair of drawings of a Great White Shark as seen from the front and the top views
Great White Shark
Height:
Width:
Length:
11’-21’ | 3.35-6.4 m
Depth:
Weight:
1500-2400 lb | 680-1090 kg
Area:

Length (Male): 11’-13’ | 3.35-3.96 m
Length (Female): 15’-21’ | 4.57-6.4 m

Speed
35 mph | 56 km/h
Scientific Name
Carcharodon carcharias
Lifespan
30-70 years

Drawings include:
Great White Shark side elevation, side (scuba diver), front, plan

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Basking Shark
Comparison illustration of the size of a Basking Shark to a typical person

The Basking Shark (Cetorhinus Maximus) is the second largest shark, after the whale shark. It has a gray-brown coloring with marble-like skin pattern. They are found in all temperate oceans of the world. Basking Sharks do not hibernate, are active all year, and do not stay in one place for more than a couple months.

During the winter, Basking Sharks swim to deeper waters. Basking sharks are filter feeders that feed passively while swimming and typically eat zooplankton, copepods, barnacles, decapod larvae, fish eggs, and shrimp. The Basking Shark is considered to be endangered.

Basking Sharks have a total length between 22’-35’ (6.7-10.7 m) and an overall weight in the range of 8800-13200 lb (4000-6000 kg). The typical lifespan of the Basking Shark is Up to 50 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Basking Shark in various poses
The Basking Shark (Cetorhinus Maximus) is the second largest shark, after the whale shark. It has a gray-brown coloring with marble-like skin pattern. They are found in all temperate oceans of the world. Basking Sharks do not hibernate, are active all year, and do not stay in one place for long.

Basking Sharks have a total length between 22’-35’ (6.7-10.7 m) and an overall weight in the range of 8800-13200 lb (4000-6000 kg). The typical lifespan of the Basking Shark is Up to 50 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Basking Shark in various poses
Basking Shark
Height:
Width:
Length:
22’-35’ | 6.7-10.7 m
Depth:
Weight:
8800-13200 lb | 4000-6000 kg
Area:
Speed
Scientific Name
Cetorhinus maximus
Lifespan
Up to 50 years

Drawings include:

Basking Shark side elevation, side (perspective), front, top

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