Amphibians are cold-blooded vertebrates, like reptiles, but require a moist environment to survive. Amphibian fossils were first discovered 419 million years ago during the Devonian period. Amphibians are distinguished by their permeable skin, which they use for breathing, absorbing water, and protection through the generation of poison in their skin glands. Amphibians lay eggs, which then go through the process of metamorphosis: the eggs hatch into limbless larvae, which are water hosted creatures that swim, that then transform into limbed adults that live primarily on land and breathe air. An important ecological indicator, due to their especially restrictive habitat requirements, amphibians are the first to die off when their environment is disturbed; this is why over half of all frog species are facing extinction.

What is the difference between amphibians and reptiles?

The difference between amphibians and reptiles is that reptiles are born with a set of lungs while amphibians are born with gills that help them breathe underwater and then grow lungs and legs later on. Also, reptiles have scales while in comparison amphibians have thin and smooth skin.

How do amphibians breathe?

Generally, amphibians breathe through their lungs as well as their skin. The skin of amphibians has to stay wet so amphibians can absorb the oxygen to effectively secrete mucous to keep their skin moist. If the skin of amphibians gets too dry, they cannot breathe and will die.

What habitats are most common for amphibians?

The most common habitats for amphibians are meadows, springs, streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, bogs, and marshes. Amphibians can also be found in swamps, vernal ponds, and farmland. Amphibians have adapted to be able to live almost anywhere and exhibit it through characteristics in their body and behaviors.

Amphibians Guides
Browse through our curated Amphibians Guides for additional categorizations, tips, details, variations, styles, and histories of Amphibians. Guides provide additional insights into the unique properties and shared relationships between elements.
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.67”-1.02” | 1.7-2.6 cm
.83”-1.34” | 2.1-3.4 cm
2”-3” | 5.1-7.6 cm
.05-.07 oz | 1.5-2 g
8-15 years
African Dwarf Frog
2.600
3.400
7.600
0.002
15.00
36800
GUIDE
3D
African Dwarf Frog
.31”-.55” | .8-1.4 cm
.28”-.47” | .7-1.2 cm
2.75”-4.72” | 7-12 cm
.05-.23 oz | 1.4-6.4 g
15-30 years
Alpine Newt
1.400
1.200
12.000
0.006
30.00
3200
GUIDE
3D
Alpine Newt
1.65”-2.56” | 4.2-6.5 cm
1.14”-1.85” | 2.9-4.7 cm
2.5”-4” | 6.4-10.2 cm
.14-.18 oz | 4-5 g
5-10 years
Amazon Milk Frog
6.500
4.700
10.200
0.005
10.00
18400
GUIDE
3D
Amazon Milk Frog
2.24”-3.9” | 5.7-9.9 cm
1.69”-2.87” | 4.3-7.3 cm
3.5”-6” | 8.9-15.2 cm
1-1.8 lb | .45-.82 kg
7-16 years
American Bullfrog
9.900
7.300
15.200
0.820
16.00
19700
GUIDE
3D
American Bullfrog
.98”-1.73” | 2.5-4.4 cm
.67”-1.18” | 1.7-3 cm
1.5”-2.5” | 3.8-6.4 cm
.28-.32 oz | 8-9 g
10-20 years
Blue Poison Dart Frog
4.400
3.000
6.400
0.009
20.00
9500
GUIDE
3D
Blue Poison Dart Frog
.51”-.83” | 1.3-2.1 cm
.47”-.79” | 1.2-2 cm
4.72”-7.87” | 12-20 cm
.21-.39 oz | 6-11 g
15-30 years
California Newt
2.100
2.000
20.000
0.011
30.00
2700
GUIDE
3D
California Newt
.79”-1.25” | 2-3.2 cm
.98”-1.57” | 2.5-4 cm
7.87”-13” | 20-33 cm
4-5.5 lb | 1.8-2.5 kg
10-30 years
Common Mudpuppy
3.200
4.000
33.000
0.003
30.00
2350
GUIDE
3D
Common Mudpuppy
1.97”-3.27” | 5-8.3 cm
1.73”-2.87” | 4.4-7.3 cm
3”-5” | 7.6-12.7 cm
.7-2.8 oz | 20-79 g
10-40 years
Common Toad
8.300
7.300
12.700
0.079
40.00
19400
GUIDE
3D
Common Toad
.87”-1.42” | 2.2-3.6 cm
1.57”-2.75” | 4-7 cm
9.45”-15.75” | 24-40 cm
4-6 lb | 1.8-2.7 kg
12-30 years
Eastern Hellbender
3.600
7.000
40.000
0.003
30.00
2050
GUIDE
3D
Eastern Hellbender
.28”-.47” | .7-1.2 cm
.24”-.39” | .6-1 cm
2.36”-3.94” | 6-10 cm
.18-.39 oz | 5-11 g
12-15 years
Eastern Newt
1.200
1.000
10.000
0.011
15.00
6000
GUIDE
3D
Eastern Newt
.39”-.59” | 10-15 mm (Diameter)
.39”-.59” | 10-15 mm (Diameter)
13.8”-15.75” | 35-40 cm
11-20 years
Gaboon Caecilian
1.500
1.500
40.000
20.00
30
GUIDE
3D
Gaboon Caecilian
1.3”-1.65” | 3.3-4.2 cm
.79”-1.02” | 2-2.6 cm
1.75”-2.2” | 4.4-5.6 cm
.5-1 oz | 14-28 g
10-20 years
Golden Poison Frog
4.200
2.600
5.600
0.028
20.00
13800
GUIDE
3D
Golden Poison Frog
4.13”-7.91” | 10.5-20.1 cm
4.69”-8.82” | 11.9-22.4 cm
6.7”-12.6” | 17-32 cm
7-7.4 lb | 3.2-3.4 kg
15-21 years
Goliath Frog
20.100
22.400
32.000
3.400
21.00
25200
GUIDE
3D
Goliath Frog
.51”-.83” | 1.3-2.1 cm
.43”-.71” | 1.1-1.8 cm
4.33”-7.09” | 11-18 cm
.12-.18 oz | 3.5-5 g
6-20 years
Jefferson Salamander
2.100
1.800
18.000
0.005
20.00
2200
GUIDE
3D
Jefferson Salamander
.59”-1.18” | 15-30 mm (Diameter)
.59”-1.18” | 15-30 mm (Diameter)
11.8”-19.7” | 30-50 cm
10-14 years
Mexican Burrowing Caecilian
3.000
3.000
50.000
14.00
260
GUIDE
3D
Mexican Burrowing Caecilian
.94”-1.57” | 2.4-4 cm
1.06”-1.81” | 2.7-4.6 cm
1.8”-3” | 4.5-7.6 cm
.05-.07 oz | 1.5-2 g
5-6 years
Mink Frog
4.000
4.600
7.600
0.002
6.00
1210
GUIDE
3D
Mink Frog
.31”-.71” | .8-1.8 cm
.24”-.47” | .6-1.2 cm
2.36”-5.51” | 6-14 cm
.16-.46 oz | 4.5-13 g
10-15 years
Northern Dusky Salamander
1.800
1.200
14.000
0.013
15.00
650
GUIDE
3D
Northern Dusky Salamander
.98”-2.24” | 2.5-5.7 cm
.87”-2” | 2.2-5.1 cm
2”-4.5” | 5.1-11.4 cm
.75-1 oz | 21-28 g
3-9 years
Northern Leopard Frog
5.700
5.100
11.400
0.028
9.00
5090
GUIDE
3D
Northern Leopard Frog
.35”-.39” | .9-1 cm
.35”-.39” | .9-1 cm
9.06”-9.84” | 23-25 cm
.6-5.3 oz | 17-150 g
60-100 years
Olm | Proteus
1.000
1.000
25.000
0.150
100.00
52100
GUIDE
3D
Olm | Proteus
.8”-1.57” | 2-4 cm
.67”-1.34” | 1.7-3.4 cm
1.75”-3.5” | 4.4-8.9 cm
.09-.12 oz | 2.5-3.5 g
5-8 years
Pickerel Frog
4.000
3.400
8.900
0.004
8.00
5820
GUIDE
3D
Pickerel Frog
1.22”-1.77” | 3.1-4.5 cm
.91”-1.5” | 2.3-3.8 cm
2”-3” | 5.1-7.6 cm
.2-.5 oz | 2.8-14 g
4-12 years
Red-Eyed Tree Frog
4.500
3.800
7.600
0.014
12.00
34300
GUIDE
3D
Red-Eyed Tree Frog
.47”-.79” | 12-20 mm (Diameter)
.47”-.79” | 12-20 mm (Diameter)
11”-17.7” | 28-45 cm
1-2 years
Ringed Caecilian
2.000
2.000
45.000
2.00
450
GUIDE
3D
Ringed Caecilian
.79”-.98” | 20-25 mm (Diameter)
.79”-.98” | 20-25 mm (Diameter)
18.1”-22” | 46-56 cm
4-5 years
Rubber Eel
2.500
2.500
56.000
5.00
2300
GUIDE
3D
Rubber Eel
.43”-.59” | 1.1-1.5 cm
.35”-.55” | .9-1.4 cm
4.72”-6.69” | 12-17 cm
.13-.15 oz | 3.6-4.2 g
6-20 years
Slimy Salamander
1.500
1.400
17.000
0.004
20.00
1250
GUIDE
3D
Slimy Salamander
.71”-1.18” | 1.8-3 cm
.59”-.98” | 1.5-2.5 cm
5.91”-9.84” | 15-25 cm
.4-.6 oz | 11-17 g
20-30 years
Spotted Salamander
3.000
2.500
25.000
0.017
30.00
12900
GUIDE
3D
Spotted Salamander
.51”-.87” | 1.3-2.2 cm
.43”-.71” | 1.1-1.8 cm
.8”-1.3” | 2-3.3 cm
.1-.2 oz | 2.8-5.7 g
2-3 years
Spring Peeper
2.200
1.800
3.300
0.006
3.00
9050
GUIDE
3D
Spring Peeper
.12”-.31” | 3-8 mm (Diameter)
.12”-.31” | 3-8 mm (Diameter)
5.9”-14.6” | 15-37 cm
1-2 years
Taita African Caecilian
0.800
0.800
37.000
2.00
150
GUIDE
3D
Taita African Caecilian
.31”-.47” | 8-12 mm (Diameter)
.31”-.47” | 8-12 mm (Diameter)
39.4”-59” | 1-1.5 m
10-13 years
Thompson's Caecilian
1.200
1.200
150.000
13.00
180
GUIDE
3D
Thompson's Caecilian
.71”-.91” | 1.8-2.3 cm
.79”-1.1” | 2-2.8 cm
5.91”-7.87” | 15-20 cm
2.1-4.6 oz | 60-130 g
14-25 years
Tiger Salamander
2.300
2.800
20.000
0.130
25.00
23700
GUIDE
3D
Tiger Salamander
.71”-1.42” | 1.8-3.6 cm
.55”-1.14” | 1.4-2.9 cm
1.4”-2.8” | 3.6-7.1 cm
.3-.5 oz | 8.5-14 g
3-5 years
Wood Frog
3.600
2.900
7.100
0.014
5.00
16150
GUIDE
3D
Wood Frog
Mink Frog (Lithobates septentrionalis)
Comparison illustration of the size of a Mink Frog to other frogs

The mink frog, Lithobathes septentrionalis, is a small frog species that is native to the United States and Canada. Its name references their scent, which reportedly smells like a mink.  Physically they have a green dorsum with darker green and brown blotching; their belly is cream, yellow, or white. The mink frog lives in predominantly aquatic areas among vegetation in ponds, swamps, and streams in wooded areas. As tadpoles they eat mostly algae and decaying plant matter, and as they age they feed on spiders, snails, beetles, and other invertebrates.

The Mink Frog has an overall length between 1.8”-3” (4.5-7.6 cm), body width of 1.06”-1.81” (2.7-4.6 cm), sitting height of roughly .94”-1.57” (2.4-4 cm), and weight between .05-.07 oz (1.5-2 g). The typical lifespan of the Mink Frog is between 5-6 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Mink Frog in various poses
The mink frog, Lithobathes septentrionalis, is a small frog species that is native to the United States and Canada. Its name references their scent, which reportedly smells like a mink. Physically they have a green dorsum with darker green and brown blotching; their belly is cream, yellow, or white.

The Mink Frog has an overall length between 1.8”-3” (4.5-7.6 cm), body width of 1.06”-1.81” (2.7-4.6 cm), sitting height of roughly .94”-1.57” (2.4-4 cm), and weight between .05-.07 oz (1.5-2 g). The typical lifespan of the Mink Frog is between 5-6 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Mink Frog in various poses
Mink Frog (Lithobates septentrionalis)
Height:
.94”-1.57” | 2.4-4 cm
Width:
1.06”-1.81” | 2.7-4.6 cm
Length:
1.8”-3” | 4.5-7.6 cm
Depth:
Weight:
.05-.07 oz | 1.5-2 g
Area:
Scientific Name
Lithobates septentrionalis
Lifespan
5-6 years

Drawings include:

Mink Frog side elevation, front, plan

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California Newt (Taricha torosa)
Scale illustration of an average California Newt compared to other salamander species

The California newt, Taricha torosa, is a newt that is native to California in the United States. Physically, they have warty, slate-gray skin on their backs with bright orange-yellow skin underneath. They also have eyes that protrude beyond the edge of the jaw line, and they are often indistinguishable to the rough-skinned newt. The California newt eats mostly invertebrates like earthworms, snails, slugs, woodlice, bloodworms, mosquito larvae, and crickets. In the Sierra Nevada the newt will also eat trout eggs, and in an aquarium habitat, earthworms provide all the necessary nutrients.

The California Newt has an overall length between 4.72”-7.87” (12-20 cm), body width of .47”-.79” (1.2-2 cm), body height of .51”-.83” (1.3-2.1 cm), and weight between .21-.39 oz (6-11 g). The typical lifespan of the California Newt is between 15-30 years.

Series of top view illustrations of the California Newt
The California newt, Taricha torosa, is a newt that is native to California in the United States. Physically, they have warty, slate-gray skin on their backs with bright orange-yellow skin underneath. They also have eyes that protrude beyond the edge of the jaw line.

The California Newt has an overall length between 4.72”-7.87” (12-20 cm), body width of .47”-.79” (1.2-2 cm), body height of .51”-.83” (1.3-2.1 cm), and weight between .21-.39 oz (6-11 g). The typical lifespan of the California Newt is between 15-30 years.

Series of top view illustrations of the California Newt
California Newt (Taricha torosa)
Height:
.51”-.83” | 1.3-2.1 cm
Width:
.47”-.79” | 1.2-2 cm
Length:
4.72”-7.87” | 12-20 cm
Depth:
Weight:
.21-.39 oz | 6-11 g
Area:
Scientific Name
Taricha torosa
Lifespan
15-30 years

Drawings include:

California Newt top view, side

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Red-Eyed Tree Frog (Agalychnis callidryas)
Comparison illustration of the size of a Red-Eyed Tree Frog to other frogs

The red-eyed tree frog, Agalychines callidryas, is an arboreal hylid that lives in the Neotropical rainforests of Mexico to Central America and Colombia. They are named after their red eyes with vertically narrowed pupils; other physical traits include a vibrant green body with yellow and blue vertically striped sides, webbed orange or red feet, and a soft belly. They spend a majority of their lives in trees and are excellent jumpers. Their red eyes can momentarily startle predators, giving the frog a chance to escape. Red-eyed tree frogs are insectivores, as they eat crickets, moths, grasshoppers, flies, and other insects.

The Red-Eyed Tree Frog has an overall length between 2”-3” (5.1-7.6 cm), body width of .91”-1.5” (2.3-3.8 cm), sitting height of roughly 1.22”-1.77” (3.1-4.5 cm), and weight between .2-.5 oz (2.8-14 g). The typical lifespan of the Red-Eyed Tree Frog is between 4-12 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Red-Eyed Tree Frog in various poses
The red-eyed tree frog, Agalychines callidryas, is an arboreal hylid that lives in the Neotropical rainforests of Mexico to Central America and Colombia. They are named after their red eyes with vertically narrowed pupils; other physical traits include a vibrant green body with yellow & blue sides.

The Red-Eyed Tree Frog has an overall length between 2”-3” (5.1-7.6 cm), body width of .91”-1.5” (2.3-3.8 cm), sitting height of roughly 1.22”-1.77” (3.1-4.5 cm), and weight between .2-.5 oz (2.8-14 g). The typical lifespan of the Red-Eyed Tree Frog is between 4-12 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Red-Eyed Tree Frog in various poses
Red-Eyed Tree Frog (Agalychnis callidryas)
Height:
1.22”-1.77” | 3.1-4.5 cm
Width:
.91”-1.5” | 2.3-3.8 cm
Length:
2”-3” | 5.1-7.6 cm
Depth:
Weight:
.2-.5 oz | 2.8-14 g
Area:
Scientific Name
Agalychnis callidryas
Lifespan
4-12 years

Drawings include:

Red-Eyed Tree Frog side elevation, front, plan

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Pickerel Frog (Lithobates palustris)
Scale illustration of an average Pickerel Frog compared to other frog species

The pickerel frog, Lithobates palustris, is a small North American frog known for its appearance of seemingly ”hand-drawn” squares on its dorsal surface; there are seven to twenty-one of these rectangular dark brown spots in two columns down its back. They like to live near cold and clear water, and prefer rocky ravines, bogs, and meadow streams, but they can also be found in heavily wooded lakes and rivers. Their diet consists of ants, spiders, beetles, sawfly larvae, and other invertebrates, and the pickerel frog will catch its prey in grassy areas next to bodies of water.

The Pickerel Frog has an overall length between 1.75”-3.5” (4.4-8.9 cm), body width of .67”-1.34” (1.7-3.4 cm), sitting height of roughly .8”-1.57” (2-4 cm), and weight between .09-.12 oz (2.5-3.5 g). The typical lifespan of the Pickerel Frog is between 5-8 years.

Series of top and side view illustrations of the Pickerel Frog
The pickerel frog, Lithobates palustris, is a small North American frog known for its appearance of seemingly ”hand-drawn” squares on its dorsal surface; there are seven to twenty-one of these rectangular dark brown spots in two columns down its back. They like to live near cold and clear water.

The Pickerel Frog has an overall length between 1.75”-3.5” (4.4-8.9 cm), body width of .67”-1.34” (1.7-3.4 cm), sitting height of roughly .8”-1.57” (2-4 cm), and weight between .09-.12 oz (2.5-3.5 g). The typical lifespan of the Pickerel Frog is between 5-8 years.

Series of top and side view illustrations of the Pickerel Frog
Pickerel Frog (Lithobates palustris)
Height:
.8”-1.57” | 2-4 cm
Width:
.67”-1.34” | 1.7-3.4 cm
Length:
1.75”-3.5” | 4.4-8.9 cm
Depth:
Weight:
.09-.12 oz | 2.5-3.5 g
Area:
Scientific Name
Lithobates palustris
Lifespan
5-8 years

Drawings include:

Pickerel Frog side elevation, front, plan

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Common Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus)
Comparison illustration of the size of a Common Mudpuppy to other salamanders

The mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus, is an aquatic salamander that lives in the eastern part of North America in lakes, rivers, and ponds. As skin and lung respiration is not sufficient for gas exchange, mudpuppies rely on external gills as their primary means of gas exchange. They are nocturnal animals, and only emerge during the day if the water in which they inhabit is murky. Their diet is diverse, as they consume insects, mollusks, earthworms, and other annelids. Physically they are a rusty brown color with black, gray, and black-blue spots.

The Common Mudpuppy has an overall length between 7.87”-13” (20-33 cm), body width of .98”-1.57” (2.5-4 cm), body height of .79”-1.25” (2-3.2 cm), and weight between 4-5.5 lb (1.8-2.5 kg). The typical lifespan of the Common Mudpuppy is between 10-30 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Common Mudpuppy in various poses
The mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus, is an aquatic salamander that lives in the eastern part of North America in lakes, rivers, and ponds. As skin and lung respiration is not sufficient for gas exchange, mudpuppies rely on external gills as their primary means of gas exchange.

The Common Mudpuppy has an overall length between 7.87”-13” (20-33 cm), body width of .98”-1.57” (2.5-4 cm), body height of .79”-1.25” (2-3.2 cm), and weight between 4-5.5 lb (1.8-2.5 kg). The typical lifespan of the Common Mudpuppy is between 10-30 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Common Mudpuppy in various poses
Common Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus)
Height:
.79”-1.25” | 2-3.2 cm
Width:
.98”-1.57” | 2.5-4 cm
Length:
7.87”-13” | 20-33 cm
Depth:
Weight:
4-5.5 lb | 1.8-2.5 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Necturus maculosus
Lifespan
10-30 years

Drawings include:

Common Mudpuppy top view, side

Details & Downloads

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