Elephants | Elephantidae

Elephants are the largest existing land mammals and can be found in Africa and Asia. Elephants used to be a common animal, but their species have been severely depleted due to poaching for their ivory tusks. Female elephants live in groups with other females and their calves and are led by one matriarch. Male elephants tend to live alone, interacting only with the groups of females for mating season. Elephants have the largest gestation term of any mammal, with the mothers carrying their young for 22 months before giving birth.

What do elephants eat?

An elephant has a vegetarian diet, and eats between 330 – 375 pounds (149 – 169 kg) of vegetation and drinks 40 gallons (152 L) of water every day. Elephants eat grasses, small plants, bushes, fruits, twigs, tree bark, and roots. They eat between 16 to 18 hours a day – 80% of an elephant’s day is spent eating.

How fast can elephants run?

Elephants can typically run up to a speed of 25 mph (40 km/h) and most African elephants typically have a speed of 15 mph (25km/h). They are able to move fast over short distances when they feel threatened. While running they always have one 1 foot on the ground, as they are too heavy to take all their feet off the ground.

How do elephants sleep?

Elephants in captivity are able to sleep between 3 to 7 hours a day and lay down for 1 to 5 hours while eating between naps. Elephants in the wild usually rest for 2 hours at night and are able to 46 hours without sleep to avoid predators. Elephants lie down to sleep or stand and lean against a tree for support.

Elephants Guides
Browse through our curated Elephants Guides for additional categorizations, tips, details, variations, styles, and histories of Elephants. Guides provide additional insights into the unique properties and shared relationships between elements.
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8.5’-13’ | 2.6-4 m
4.27’-6.89’ | 1.3-2.1 m
10’-16.5’ | 3-5 m
5,500-15,400 lb | 2,500-7,000 kg
60-75 years
African Bush Elephant
400.000
210.000
500.000
7000.000
75.00
42900
3D
African Bush Elephant
5.92’-9.83’ | 1.8-3 m
2.82’-4.59’ | .86-1.4 m
7.22’-12.13’ | 2.2-3.7 m
8,818-13,889 lb | 4,000-6,300 kg
60-70 years
African Forest Elephant
300.000
140.000
370.000
6300.000
70.00
17400
3D
African Forest Elephant
8.17’-9.83’ | 2.5-3 m
3.94’-5.25’ | 1.2-1.6 m
10.17’-12.47’ | 3.1-3.8 m
6,000-10,000 | 2,720-4,535 kg
55-70 years
Borneo Pygmy Elephant
300.000
160.000
380.000
4535.000
70.00
1850
3D
Borneo Pygmy Elephant
4.25’-4.58’ | 1.3-1.4 m
2.4’-2.5’ | .73-.76 m
5.58’-5.91’ | 1.7-1.8 m
440-550 lb | 200-250 kg
68 years (minimum)
Cyprus Dwarf Elephant
140.000
76.000
180.000
250.000
68.00
70
3D
Cyprus Dwarf Elephant
6.58’-11.42’ | 2-3.5 m
3.28’-6.23’ | 1-1.9 m
8.2’-14.44’ | 2.5-4.4 m
4,409-11,023 lb | 2,000-5,500 kg
50-80 years
Indian Elephant
350.000
190.000
440.000
5500.000
80.00
61700
3D
Indian Elephant
8.5’-11.17’ | 2.6-3.4 m
4.59’-6.23’ | 1.4-1.9 m
9.19’-12.47’ | 2.8-3.8 m
13,205-17,593 lb | 5,990-7,980 kg
60-80 years
Woolly Mammoth
340.000
190.000
380.000
7980.000
80.00
146900
3D
Woolly Mammoth
African Bush Elephant (Loxodonta africana)
Dimensioned comparison drawing of the African Bush Elephant compared to other elephants and a person

The African Bush Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) is the large living animal with bulls reaching a shoulder height of up to 4 meters, the largest living terrestrial animal is also known as the African Savanna Elephant. Both sexes have curved tusks that develop and are rising throughout their whole lives when they are 1–3 years old. The African Bush Elephant is distributed in 37 African countries and lives in forests, grasslands, wetlands, and farmland. It is a social mammal, composed of cattle and their descendants who travel in herds. It feeds on scratching, splitting, medicinal seeds, leaves, and wood. The Africa Bush Elephant is threatened with habitat loss, wildfire, and ivory.

African Bush Elephants have a typical shoulder height between 8.5’-13’ (2.6-4 m), body length of 10’-16.5’ (3-5 m), and width of 4.27’-6.89’ (1.3-2.1 m). The typical weight of the African Bush Elephant is in the range of 5,500-15,400 lb (2,500-7,000 kg). African Bush Elephants have lifespans between 60-75 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the African Bush Elephant viewed from the front and side
The African Bush Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) is the large living animal with bulls reaching a shoulder height of up to 4 meters, the largest living terrestrial animal is also known as the African Savanna Elephant. Both sexes have curved tusks that develop and are rising throughout their lives.

African Bush Elephants have a typical shoulder height between 8.5’-13’ (2.6-4 m), body length of 10’-16.5’ (3-5 m), and width of 4.27’-6.89’ (1.3-2.1 m). The typical weight of the African Bush Elephant is in the range of 5,500-15,400 lb (2,500-7,000 kg). African Bush Elephants have lifespans between 60-75 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the African Bush Elephant viewed from the front and side
African Bush Elephant (Loxodonta africana)
Height:
8.5’-13’ | 2.6-4 m
Width:
4.27’-6.89’ | 1.3-2.1 m
Length:
10’-16.5’ | 3-5 m
Depth:
Weight:
5,500-15,400 lb | 2,500-7,000 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Loxodonta africana
Lifespan
60-75 years

Drawings include:

African Bush Elephant side elevation, front, back, lying down

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Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius)
Measured comparison illustration of the size of a Woolly Mammoth to a typical person and other elephants

The Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) is an extinct mammoth species that lived during the Pleistocene period up to its extinction at the beginning of the Holocene. The nearest relative is the Asian elephant. The wooly mammoth had been well adapted during the last ice age to the cold climate. It was coated with fur, with long guard hair on the external surface and a shorter base. The coat's color ranged between light and dark brown and the ears and tail were short to keep freezes and heat loss to a minimum. It had long and curved tusks for defense but also used for gathering herbs along with their trunks.

Woolly Mammoths had a typical shoulder height between 8.5’-11.17’ (2.6-3.4 m), body length of 9.19’-12.47’ (2.8-3.8 m), and width of 4.59’-6.23’ (1.4-1.9 m). The typical weight of the Woolly Mammoth was in the range of 13,205-17,593 lb (5,990-7,980 kg). Woolly Mammoths had lifespans between 60-80 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Woolly Mammoth in front and side poses
The Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) is an extinct mammoth species that lived during the Pleistocene period up to its extinction at the beginning of the Holocene. The nearest relative is the Asian elephant. The wooly mammoth had been well adapted during the last ice age to the cold climate.

Woolly Mammoths had a typical shoulder height between 8.5’-11.17’ (2.6-3.4 m), body length of 9.19’-12.47’ (2.8-3.8 m), and width of 4.59’-6.23’ (1.4-1.9 m). The typical weight of the Woolly Mammoth was in the range of 13,205-17,593 lb (5,990-7,980 kg). Woolly Mammoths had lifespans between 60-80 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Woolly Mammoth in front and side poses
Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius)
Height:
8.5’-11.17’ | 2.6-3.4 m
Width:
4.59’-6.23’ | 1.4-1.9 m
Length:
9.19’-12.47’ | 2.8-3.8 m
Depth:
Weight:
13,205-17,593 lb | 5,990-7,980 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Mammuthus primigenius
Lifespan
60-80 years

Drawings include:

Woolly Mammoth side elevation, front

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African Forest Elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis)
Scale illustration of an average African Forest Elephant with dimensions length compared to a human and other elephants

African Forest Elephant (Loxodonta Cyclotis) originates from humid rainforests and the Congo Basin in West Africa. It is the smallest of the three species of living elephants to a height of 2.4 meters. Both sexes of the African Forest Elephant have straight down-pointing tusks, which erupt at the age of 1–3 years. The African forest elephant has a brown skin that appears yellow to reddish when wallowed. It resides in households of up to 20 elephants. It has been called the 'forest megagardener' since it is drilled on eating leaves, seeds, fruit, and tree bark.

African Forest Elephants have a typical shoulder height between 5.92’-9.83’ (1.8-3 m), body length of 7.22’-12.13’ (2.2-3.7 m), and width of 2.82’-4.59’ (.86-1.4 m). The typical weight of the African Forest Elephant is in the range of 8,818-13,889 lb (4,000-6,300 kg). African Forest Elephants have lifespans between 60-70 years.

Pair of elevation illustrations of the African Forest Elephant seen from the side and front
African Forest Elephant (Loxodonta Cyclotis) originates from humid rainforests and the Congo Basin in West Africa. It is the smallest of the three species of living elephants to a height of 2.4 meters. Both sexes of the African Forest Elephant have straight down-pointing tusks.

African Forest Elephants have a typical shoulder height between 5.92’-9.83’ (1.8-3 m), body length of 7.22’-12.13’ (2.2-3.7 m), and width of 2.82’-4.59’ (.86-1.4 m). The typical weight of the African Forest Elephant is in the range of 8,818-13,889 lb (4,000-6,300 kg). African Forest Elephants have lifespans between 60-70 years.

Pair of elevation illustrations of the African Forest Elephant seen from the side and front
African Forest Elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis)
Height:
5.92’-9.83’ | 1.8-3 m
Width:
2.82’-4.59’ | .86-1.4 m
Length:
7.22’-12.13’ | 2.2-3.7 m
Depth:
Weight:
8,818-13,889 lb | 4,000-6,300 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Loxodonta cyclotis
Lifespan
60-70 years

Drawings include:

African Forest Elephant side elevation, front, back, walking

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Borneo Pygmy Elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis)
Measured comparison illustration of the size of a Borneo Pygmy Elephant to a typical person and other elephants

In the northeast of Borneo, Indonesia, and Malaysia, the Borneo elephant, also called the Borneo Pygmy Elephant (Elephas Maximus Borneensis), is a subspecies of the Asian elephant. The Borneo Pygmy Elephant is the smallest Asian elephant subspecies in size, and are baby-faced with oversized ears, plump bellies and tails that are so long they drag on the floor when they are walking. They are also gentler than their counterparts in the Asian elephants, even with their straight tusks. Their habitat consists of forests and open grasslands and with their small-long trunks, It makes gathering fruits, leaves, and grass useful.

Borneo Pygmy Elephants have a typical shoulder height between 8.17’-9.83’ (2.5-3 m), body length of 10.17’-12.47’ (3.1-3.8 m), and width of 3.94’-5.25’ (1.2-1.6 m). The typical weight of the Borneo Pygmy Elephant is in the range of 6,000-10,000 (2,720-4,535 kg). Borneo Pygmy Elephants have lifespans between 55-70 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Borneo Pygmy Elephant in front and side poses
In the northeast of Borneo, Indonesia, and Malaysia, the Borneo elephant, also called the Borneo Pygmy Elephant (Elephas Maximus Borneensis), is a subspecies of the Asian elephant. The Borneo Pygmy Elephant is the smallest Asian elephant subspecies in size, and are baby-faced with oversized ears.

Borneo Pygmy Elephants have a typical shoulder height between 8.17’-9.83’ (2.5-3 m), body length of 10.17’-12.47’ (3.1-3.8 m), and width of 3.94’-5.25’ (1.2-1.6 m). The typical weight of the Borneo Pygmy Elephant is in the range of 6,000-10,000 (2,720-4,535 kg). Borneo Pygmy Elephants have lifespans between 55-70 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Borneo Pygmy Elephant in front and side poses
Borneo Pygmy Elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis)
Height:
8.17’-9.83’ | 2.5-3 m
Width:
3.94’-5.25’ | 1.2-1.6 m
Length:
10.17’-12.47’ | 3.1-3.8 m
Depth:
Weight:
6,000-10,000 | 2,720-4,535 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Elephas maximus borneensis
Lifespan
55-70 years

Drawings include:

Borneo Pygmy Elephant side elevation, front, back,

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Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus indicus)
Scale illustration of an average Indian Elephant with dimensions length compared to a human and other elephants

The Indian elephant (Elephas Maximus Indicus) is one of three known recognized Asian elephant subspecies native to mainland Asia. In general, Asian elephants are smaller than African elephants and have the highest body point on their heads. The tip of their trunk has a finger-like hump and their back is leveled. Indian Elephants are between 2 and 3.5 m tall and weigh between 2,000 and 5,000 kg and have 19 pairs of ribs. The color of their skin is lighter than that of Sumatran Elephant with smaller spots of depigmentation but darker than Sumatran Elephant. Females are typically smaller than males and have short tusks or no tusks.

Indian Elephants have a typical shoulder height between 6.58’-11.42’ (2-3.5 m), body length of 8.2’-14.44’ (2.5-4.4 m), and width of 3.28’-6.23’ (1-1.9 m). The typical weight of the Indian Elephant is in the range of 4,409-11,023 lb (2,000-5,500 kg). Indian Elephants have lifespans between 50-80 years.

Pair of elevation illustrations of the Indian Elephant seen from the side and front
The Indian elephant (Elephas Maximus Indicus) is one of three known recognized Asian elephant subspecies native to mainland Asia. In general, Asian elephants are smaller than African elephants and have the highest body point on their heads. The tip of their trunk has a finger-like hump.

Indian Elephants have a typical shoulder height between 6.58’-11.42’ (2-3.5 m), body length of 8.2’-14.44’ (2.5-4.4 m), and width of 3.28’-6.23’ (1-1.9 m). The typical weight of the Indian Elephant is in the range of 4,409-11,023 lb (2,000-5,500 kg). Indian Elephants have lifespans between 50-80 years.

Pair of elevation illustrations of the Indian Elephant seen from the side and front
Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus indicus)
Height:
6.58’-11.42’ | 2-3.5 m
Width:
3.28’-6.23’ | 1-1.9 m
Length:
8.2’-14.44’ | 2.5-4.4 m
Depth:
Weight:
4,409-11,023 lb | 2,000-5,500 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Elephas maximus indicus
Lifespan
50-80 years

Drawings include:

Indian Elephant side elevation, front, back, lying down

Details & Downloads

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