Description
Description

Ramps are inclined surfaces that join different levels of a space. Commonly used at the entrances of buildings to accommodate level changes from the exterior grade to the interior floor, ramps provide accessibility for wheelchair users, individuals with disabilities, and wheeled equipment. The maximum slope of a ramp is calculated to provide comfortable and easy access to the building. Low ramp slope ratios will require longer runs, while steeper slopes can have shorter lengths.

History
History

The concept of using inclined surfaces to join different levels can be traced back to ancient civilizations, such as the Greeks and Romans, who used ramps to access their buildings and structures. In the 20th century, ramps became more widely used as a means of accessibility for people with disabilities. Since the passage of the ADA, ramps have become an essential component of accessible design and are used in a wide range of buildings and public spaces, including homes, schools, offices, and public transportation.

Future
Future

Ramps are evolving to prioritize inclusivity and eco-friendliness. In urban areas, multi-functional ramps integrate greenery, like those seen in park landscapes, serving both accessibility and aesthetics. Modular, portable ramps offer quick solutions for events or temporary needs. For mobility, cities adopt universal design principles, ensuring ramps cater to all users, including those with disabilities. Advanced materials make ramps more durable and weather-resistant. As societies aim for seamless and inclusive environments, ramps will continue to be vital, merging form, function, and sustainability.

Common Questions
Common Questions
Why are ramps preferred over stairs by elderly people?

Elderly people may prefer ramps over stairs due to physical limitations such as decreased mobility, balance, and strength, which can make climbing stairs difficult and increase the risk of falls. Ramps provide a gentler slope, allowing for a gradual increase in elevation, which can be easier and safer for older individuals to navigate. Additionally, ramps can accommodate mobility aids such as walkers and wheelchairs, providing greater accessibility.

When were ramps first invented?

The exact date and inventor of ramps is unknown, as the concept of a sloping surface for ease of movement has likely been utilized by various civilizations throughout history. However, the earliest recorded use of ramps dates back to ancient Egypt, where ramps were used in the construction of pyramids.

Are ramps always required?

Ramps are not always required by law, but the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that ramps be installed in certain circumstances to ensure accessibility for individuals with disabilities. The specific requirements for ramps depend on the type of building, the height of the elevation change, and the intended use of the space. In some instances, exceptions can be made if it is not technically feasible to install a ramp, but alternative measures must be taken to ensure accessibility.

Buildings

* Under Development *

30” | 76.2 cm (Max)
30'-40' | 9.14-12.19 m (Max)
Ramp Slopes
76.200
1219.000
3800
https://p3d.in/e/DyDAX
GUIDE
3D
Ramp Slopes3D model of Ramp Slopes viewed in perspective3D model of Ramp Slopes viewed in perspective
4”, 6” | 10.2, 15.2 cm
9”8”-14’ | 2.95-4.27 m (Overall)
48”, 72” | 121.9, 182.9 cm
Curb - Ramp, Built-Up
15.200
427.000
182.900
50
https://p3d.in/e/xTVjd
GUIDE
3D
Curb - Ramp, Built-UpView of a Built-Up Curb Ramp in 3D available for downloadView of a Built-Up Curb Ramp in 3D available for download
4”, 6” | 10.2, 15.2 cm
9”8”-14’ | 2.95-4.27 m (Overall)
48”, 72” | 121.9, 182.9 cm
Curb - Ramp, Flared
15.200
427.000
182.900
10
https://p3d.in/e/5oeHX
GUIDE
3D
Curb - Ramp, FlaredPerspective view of a 3D model of a Flared Curb RampPerspective view of a 3D model of a Flared Curb Ramp
4”, 6” | 10.2, 15.2 cm
12’-15’ | 3.66,-4.57 m
48”, 60” | 121.9, 152.4 cm
Curb - Ramp, Parallel
15.200
457.000
152.400
90
https://p3d.in/e/WZfYv
GUIDE
3D
Curb - Ramp, Parallel3D model of a Parallel Curb Ramp viewed in perspective3D model of a Parallel Curb Ramp viewed in perspective
4”, 6” | 10.2, 15.2 cm
36”, 48” | 91.4, 121.9 cm
48”, 72” | 121.9, 182.9 cm
Curb - Ramp, Returned
15.200
121.900
182.900
0
https://p3d.in/e/Y4xw3
GUIDE
3D
Curb - Ramp, ReturnedView of a Returned Curb Ramp in 3D available for downloadView of a Returned Curb Ramp in 3D available for download
12” | 30.5 cm
36” | 91.4 cm
17’ | 5.18 m
Ramp - Straight
30.500
91.400
518.000
20
https://p3d.in/e/VfZkN
GUIDE
3D
Ramp - StraightView of Ramp (Straight) in 3D available for downloadView of Ramp (Straight) in 3D available for download
24” | 61 cm
7’ | 2.13 m (Overall)
38’ | 11.6 m (Total)
Ramp - Switchback
61.000
213.000
1160.000
420
https://p3d.in/e/pFlVK
GUIDE
3D
Ramp - Switchback3D model of Ramp (Switchback) viewed in perspective3D model of Ramp (Switchback) viewed in perspective
24” | 61 cm
17’ | 5.18 m (Overall)
36’ | 11 m (Total)
Ramp - Turning
61.000
518.000
1100.000
20
https://p3d.in/e/iUWGA
GUIDE
3D
Ramp - TurningPerspective view of a 3D model of Ramp (Turning)Perspective view of a 3D model of Ramp (Turning)
4’ | 122 cm (Overall)
44” | 111.7 cm
18.7’ | 5.7 m (Total)
Ramp Handrails - Utility
122.000
111.700
570.000
1900
https://p3d.in/e/XzmYg
GUIDE
3D
Ramp Handrails - Utility3D model of Ramp Handrails (Utility) viewed in perspective3D model of Ramp Handrails (Utility) viewed in perspective
4.5’ | 137 cm (Overall)
45” | 114.3 cm
18.5’ | 5.64 m (Total)
Ramp Handrails - Vertical
137.000
114.300
564.000
1900
https://p3d.in/e/fojl6
GUIDE
3D
Ramp Handrails - VerticalPerspective view of a 3D model of Ramp Handrails (Vertical)Perspective view of a 3D model of Ramp Handrails (Vertical)
4.17’ | 127 cm (Overall)
49.5” | 125.7 cm
22.33’ | 6.81 m (Total)
Ramp Handrails - Wall
127.000
125.700
681.000
1900
https://p3d.in/e/zN4LY
GUIDE
3D
Ramp Handrails - WallView of Ramp Handrails (Wall) in 3D available for downloadView of Ramp Handrails (Wall) in 3D available for download
Ramp - Turning
Scaled comparison drawings of the Ramp (Turning) and other ramp types

Turned ramps are accessible ramps designed with a 90° change of direction along the accessible route. The size of these landings provides adequate mobility for a wheelchair user to comfortably rotate according to the change in direction. This design is typically used in architectural or engineering projects where there is limited space for a ramp and a straight incline is not possible. The ramp may turn either to the left or to the right, depending on the layout and location of the building or structure. However, the sudden change in direction can be challenging for some users, so these ramps should be designed with caution and with accessibility in mind.

The Ramp (Turning) has a height of 24” (61 cm), total run length of 36’ (11 m), and overall width of 17’ (5.18 m). Dimensions will vary based on the desired slope and height needed.The landings of turning ramps must have minimum widths and lengths of 60” (152.4 cm) in both directions at the moment that the turn occurs. Landings with minimum lengths of 60” (152.4 cm) and widths consistent to the width of the ramp must be provided at the top and bottom of any straight run portions of the turned ramp.

Dimensioned drawings of an ADA ramp with regulation landings for turning a corner
Turned ramps are accessible ramps designed with a 90° change of direction along the accessible route. The size of landings provides adequate mobility for a wheelchair user to comfortably rotate according to the change in direction. The inner handrail along a turning ramp must remain continuous.

The Ramp (Turning) has a height of 24” (61 cm), total run length of 36’ (11 m), and overall width of 17’ (5.18 m). Dimensions will vary based on the desired slope and height needed.The landings of turning ramps must have minimum widths and lengths of 60” (152.4 cm) in both directions at the moment that the turn occurs. Landings with minimum lengths of 60” (152.4 cm) and widths consistent to the width of the ramp must be provided at the top and bottom of any straight run portions of the turned ramp.

Dimensioned drawings of an ADA ramp with regulation landings for turning a corner
Ramp - Turning
Height:
24” | 61 cm
Width:
17’ | 5.18 m (Overall)
Length:
36’ | 11 m (Total)
Depth:
Weight:
Area:

Landing Depth (Min.): 60” | 152.4 cm
Landing Width (Min.): 60” | 152.4 cm

Drawings include:
Ramp Landings Turning plan (wheelchair user), elevation

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2D Downloads

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Curb - Ramp, Flared
Style and size comparison drawing of the Flared Curb Ramp compared to other curb configurations

A flared curb ramp is a type of ramp that is used to provide access to the street for pedestrians and people with disabilities. It is characterized by its flared sides, which extend out from the curb and provide a wider landing area. This makes it easier for people to get on and off the ramp, and also helps to prevent them from tripping or falling. Flared curb ramps are typically made of concrete or asphalt, and they are often painted a bright color to make them more visible.

Flared Curb Ramps are designed in various sizes with heights of 4”, 6” (10.2, 15.2 cm), overall widths of 9”8”-14’ (2.95-4.27 m), and overall depths of 48”, 72” (121.9, 182.9 cm). Curb ramps have a minimum width of 36” (91.4 cm) and landings of 36”-48” (91.4-121.9 cm
). Slopes are a maximum of 1:12 for the run and 1:10 for the flared sides.

Set of scaled dimensioned drawings of the Flared Curb Ramp viewed from the front, plan, and side
A flared curb ramp is a type of ramp that is used to provide access to the street for pedestrians and people with disabilities. It is characterized by its flared sides, which extend out from the curb and provide a wider landing area. This makes it easier for people to get on and off the ramp.

Flared Curb Ramps are designed in various sizes with heights of 4”, 6” (10.2, 15.2 cm), overall widths of 9”8”-14’ (2.95-4.27 m), and overall depths of 48”, 72” (121.9, 182.9 cm). Curb ramps have a minimum width of 36” (91.4 cm) and landings of 36”-48” (91.4-121.9 cm
). Slopes are a maximum of 1:12 for the run and 1:10 for the flared sides.

Set of scaled dimensioned drawings of the Flared Curb Ramp viewed from the front, plan, and side
Curb - Ramp, Flared
Height:
4”, 6” | 10.2, 15.2 cm
Width:
9”8”-14’ | 2.95-4.27 m (Overall)
Length:
Depth:
48”, 72” | 121.9, 182.9 cm
Weight:
Area:

Width (Minimum): 36” | 91.4 cm

Width (Preferred): 48” | 121.9 cm

Landing: 36”-48” | 91.4-121.9 cm

Slope (Run): 1:12 Max

Slope (Flare): 1:10 Max

Materials
Concrete

Drawings include:

Flared Curb Ramp plan view, front, side

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Ramp - Straight Run
Size comparison diagram of the Ramp (Straight) compared to other similar ramp types

Straight run ramps are accessible ramps designed without any changes in direction along the accessible route. Requiring landings at both the top and bottom of the ramp run, straight run ramp landings must maintain widths that are at least the dimension of the ramp runs connected to it. It is the most basic and straightforward type of ramp design, and is used in many architectural and engineering projects where there is ample space and a gentle incline is desired.

The Ramp (Straight) has a height of 12” (30.5 cm), total length of 17’ (5.18 m), and width of 36” (91.4 cm). The length of landings along a straight rump ramp must be at least 60” (152.4 cm). Dimensions will vary based on the desired slope and height needed.

Dimensioned drawing of a straight run ADA ramp with landings
Straight run ramps are accessible ramps designed without any changes in direction along the accessible route. Requiring landings at both the top and bottom of the ramp run, straight run ramp landings must maintain widths that are at least the dimension of the ramp runs connected to it.

The Ramp (Straight) has a height of 12” (30.5 cm), total length of 17’ (5.18 m), and width of 36” (91.4 cm). The length of landings along a straight rump ramp must be at least 60” (152.4 cm). Dimensions will vary based on the desired slope and height needed.

Dimensioned drawing of a straight run ADA ramp with landings
Ramp - Straight Run
Height:
12” | 30.5 cm
Width:
36” | 91.4 cm
Length:
17’ | 5.18 m
Depth:
Weight:
Area:

Landing Length (Min.): 60” | 152.4 cm
Landing Width (Min.): At least as wide as the ramp run

Drawings include:
Ramp Landings plan (wheelchair user), elevation

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Ramp - Switchback
Scaled comparison drawings of the Ramp (Switchback) and other ramp types

Switchback ramps are accessible ramps designed with a 180° change of direction along the accessible route. The inner handrail of a switchback ramp must remain continuous. It consists of a series of zigzag turns or switchbacks that create a staircase-like structure, allowing the ramp to go up a steep incline while occupying a smaller area. This design is commonly used in hilly terrain or when building a ramp in a confined space, as it helps to reduce the overall slope of the ramp, making it more accessible for people with disabilities and easier to traverse for everyone.

The Ramp (Switchback) has a height of 24” (61 cm), total run length of 38’ (11.6 m), and overall width as shown of 7’ (2.13 m). Dimensions will vary based on the desired slope and height needed. The landings of switchback ramps must maintain consistent minimum widths and depths of 60” (152.4 cm) along the entire change of direction running parallel to the ramp run. Landings with minimum lengths of 60” (152.4 cm) and widths consistent to the width of the ramp must be provided at the top and bottom of any straight run portions of the switchback ramp.

Plan and elevation drawings of an ADA ramp with a switchback layout with dimensions for length and width
Switchback ramps are accessible ramps designed with a 180° change of direction along the accessible route. The inner handrail of a switchback ramp must remain continuous. It consists of a series of zigzag turns or switchbacks that create a staircase-like structure.

The Ramp (Switchback) has a height of 24” (61 cm), total run length of 38’ (11.6 m), and overall width as shown of 7’ (2.13 m). Dimensions will vary based on the desired slope and height needed. The landings of switchback ramps must maintain consistent minimum widths and depths of 60” (152.4 cm) along the entire change of direction running parallel to the ramp run. Landings with minimum lengths of 60” (152.4 cm) and widths consistent to the width of the ramp must be provided at the top and bottom of any straight run portions of the switchback ramp.

Plan and elevation drawings of an ADA ramp with a switchback layout with dimensions for length and width
Ramp - Switchback
Height:
24” | 61 cm
Width:
7’ | 2.13 m (Overall)
Length:
38’ | 11.6 m (Total)
Depth:
Weight:
Area:

Landing Depth (Min.): 60” | 152.4 cm
Landing Width (Min.): 60” | 152.4 cm
Landing Length (Min.): Combined widths of both runs

Drawings include:
Ramp Landings Switchback plan (wheelchair user), elevation

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2D Downloads

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Ramp Handrails - Utility
Size comparison diagram of the Ramp Handrails (Utility) compared to typical people

Utility ramp handrails are common all-in-one safety components used along any accessible ramp that typically provide user assistance and protection from falling off a ramp. As free-standing elements, utliity handrails must double as both an assistive handrail and a guardrail that prevents users from accessing the edge of the ramp. For edge protection, utility handrails must include either curbs or barriers at a minimum of 4” (10.2 cm) high along the ramp edge, or an integrated parallel bar at the bottom of the handrail that would restrict the passage of a 4” (10.2 cm) diameter sphere.

The Ramp (Handrails - Utility) has an overall combined height of 4’ (122 cm), total length of 18.7’ (5.7 m), and width of 44” (111.7 cm). Dimensions will vary based on the desired slope and height needed. Handrails along both sides of a ramp are required on any ramp system with a rise greater than 6” (15.2 cm) or a horizontal run greater than 72” (182.9 cm). The top grippable surface of any ramp handrail must be set at a height between 34”-38” (86.4-96.5 cm) above the ramp surface and a minimum clear width of 36” (91.4 cm) must be provided between handrails. In situations where a handrail is not continuous, handrails must extend at least another 12” (30.5 cm) parallel to the flat surface of the ramp landing. Inner handrails on a switchback or turned ramp must always be continuous. The ends of any handrail should be rounded or returned smoothly to the floor, wall, or post.

Illustrations dimensioning an ADA ramp with utility handrails with measurements for height and length
Utility ramp handrails are common all-in-one safety components used along any accessible ramp that typically provide user assistance and protection from falling off a ramp. As free-standing elements, utliity handrails must double as both an assistive handrail and a guardrail for users.

The Ramp (Handrails - Utility) has an overall combined height of 4’ (122 cm), total length of 18.7’ (5.7 m), and width of 44” (111.7 cm). Dimensions will vary based on the desired slope and height needed. Handrails along both sides of a ramp are required on any ramp system with a rise greater than 6” (15.2 cm) or a horizontal run greater than 72” (182.9 cm). The top grippable surface of any ramp handrail must be set at a height between 34”-38” (86.4-96.5 cm) above the ramp surface and a minimum clear width of 36” (91.4 cm) must be provided between handrails. In situations where a handrail is not continuous, handrails must extend at least another 12” (30.5 cm) parallel to the flat surface of the ramp landing. Inner handrails on a switchback or turned ramp must always be continuous. The ends of any handrail should be rounded or returned smoothly to the floor, wall, or post.

Illustrations dimensioning an ADA ramp with utility handrails with measurements for height and length
Ramp Handrails - Utility
Height:
4’ | 122 cm (Overall)
Width:
44” | 111.7 cm
Length:
18.7’ | 5.7 m (Total)
Depth:
Weight:
Area:

Handrail Height: 34”-38” | 86.4-96.5 cm above ramp surface
Handrail Extensions (Landings): 12” | 30.5 cm
Clear Width (Min.): 36” | 91.4 cm between closest element (handrail or curb)
Edge Protection (Curb): 4” | 10.2 cm high
Edge Protection (Lower Guardrail): Prevents 4” | 10.2 cm diameter sphere

Drawings include:
Ramp Guardrails (Utility) Handrails side elevation, section, side (wheelchair user), section (wheelchair user)

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