Penguins | Spheniscidae
Penguins are a species of flightless aquatic birds that live south of the equator with the exception of one species that lives on the Galapagos Island. Having adapted for the water instead of the air, the penguin’s wings have evolved from wings to flippers; useful for propelling the penguin through the water. For its diet, penguins feed primarily on fish, krill, squid, that they hunt underwater. Penguins spend half of their lives on land and half of life in the water. The penguin is primarily black and white, but many species, such as the Emperor Penguin, have accents of colorful plumage on their faces and necks.
Penguins typically eat the prey that is available in their habitat. King and Emperor Penguins mostly eat fish, but may also eat krill, crustaceans, and cephalopods. The diet of Adélie, Chinstrap, and Gentoo penguins mostly made up of Antarctic krill, silverfish, and glacial squid.
Although penguins are classified birds, their wings are more suited for water. A penguin’s wings are more like flippers and allow them to swim in the water. While they are on land their wings help them keep their balance and walk. Scientist believe penguins lost the ability to fly through evolution.
Penguins stay warm through a layer of fat that protects them and serves as insulation while they are in the cold water. While they are on land the layers of overlapping feathers keep them warm, and protect them from harsh weather conditions.