Dinosaurs | Dinosauria

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of prehistoric reptiles that were the dominant terrestrial animals of the Late Triassic (251.9-201.3 Mya), Jurassic (201.3-145 Mya), and Cretaceous (145-66 Mya) periods. Discovered and studied since the 19th century, dinosaur fossils found around the world have been used by paleontologists to identify over 1,000 different species of dinosaurs.

Dinosaurs are commonly categorized by distinctive traits ranging from variations of bipedal (2 legs) or quadrupedal (4 legs), body armor or feathers, herbivorous or carnivorous, and quick or slow movement speeds. Though dinosaurs mysteriously disappeared 65 million years ago, their legacy continues to be popularized in museums, books, films and television.

When did dinosaurs live?

Dinosaurs lived in the Mesozoic Era which took place between 245 and 66 million years ago. The Mesozoic Era is divided into 3 time periods: Triassic (252 to 201 million years ago), Jurassic (201 to 145 million years ago), and Cretaceous (145 to 66 million years ago).

Why were dinosaurs so big?

Paleontologist believe dinosaurs grew so big in order to gain protection from predators, help regulate internal body temperature, and to allow them to reach their source of food. Today, whales are the only animal who are close to the size of dinosaurs.

Where did dinosaurs live?

Dinosaur fossils have been found on every continent, proving that they lived in every environment of the world. During the Triassic period the continents were one supercontinent called Pangea. The continents slowly spread across the world into the arrangement that they are at today.

Dinosaurs Guides
Browse through our curated Dinosaurs Guides for additional categorizations, tips, details, variations, styles, and histories of Dinosaurs. Guides provide additional insights into the unique properties and shared relationships between elements.
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9.5’-16.1’ | 2.9-4.9 m
3.3’-5.25’ | 1-1.6 m
26’-43’ | 7.9-13.1 m
3,300-5,070 lb | 1,497-2,300 kg
25-30 years
Allosaurus
490.000
160.000
1310.000
2300.000
30.00
199000
3D
Allosaurus
7’-8.2’ | 2.15-2.5 m
3.4’-4.4’ | 1.05-1.35 m
30’-33' | 9.14-10 m
5,700-6,600 lb | 2,585-2,994 kg
25-35 years
Amargasaurus
250.000
135.000
1000.000
2994.000
35.00
32000
3D
Amargasaurus
5'6" | 1.67 m
16' | 4.85 m
Ankylosaurus
167.000
485.000
66000
3D
Ankylosaurus
17.1’-18.7’ | 5.2-5.7 m
6.9’-7.5’ | 2.1-2.3 m
69’-75’ | 21-23 m
36,000-49,000 lb | 16,330-22,226 kg
70-100 years
Apatosaurus
570.000
230.000
2300.000
22226.000
100.00
87000
3D
Apatosaurus
5.5”-7.1” | 14-18 cm
1.4”-2” | 3.5-5 cm
1.3’-1.6’ | .4-.5 m
1.8-2.2 lb | .82-1 kg
Archaeopteryx
18.000
5.000
50.000
1.000
175000
3D
Archaeopteryx
39.4’-45.9’ | 12-14 m
12.5’-14.8’ | 3.8-4.5 m
98’-115’ | 30-35 m
110,000-220,000 lb | 49,895-99,790 kg
35-45 years
Argentinosaurus
1400.000
450.000
3500.000
99790.000
45.00
114000
3D
Argentinosaurus
41’-49.2’ | 12.5-15 m (Overall)
10.2’-12.5’ | 3.1-3.8 m
59’-72.2’ | 18-22 m
62,400-103,400 lb | 28,300-46,900 kg
80-100 years
Brachiosaurus
1500.000
380.000
2200.000
46900.000
100.00
291000
3D
Brachiosaurus
26.6’-28.9’ | 8.1-8.8 m
6.6’-7.4’ | 2-2.25 m
69’-75’ | 21-23 m
34,000-50,000 lb | 15,422-22,680 kg
80-100 years
Brontosaurus
880.000
225.000
2300.000
22680.000
100.00
213000
3D
Brontosaurus
3’-4.3’ | .9-1.3 m
6.3”-10.2” | 16-26 cm
6.6’-9.8’ | 2-3 m
33-55 lb | 15-25 kg
Coelophysis
130.000
26.000
300.000
25.000
22000
3D
Coelophysis
15.1’-17.4’ | 4.6-5.3 m
3.3’-3.9’ | 1-1.2 m
30’-33' | 9.14-10 m
6,000-11,000 lb | 2,722-4,990 kg
60-70 years
Corythosaurus
530.000
120.000
1000.000
4990.000
70.00
18000
3D
Corythosaurus
2.8’-4.75’ | .85-1.45 m
9.4”-16.5” | 24-42 cm
9’-16’ | 2.74-4.88 m
160-220 lb | 73-100 kg
Deinonychus
145.000
42.000
488.000
100.000
99000
3D
Deinonychus
5.7’-7.4’ | 1.75-2.25 m
15.75”-23.6” | 40-60 cm
16’-20’ | 4.88-6.1 m
650-1,000 lb | 295-454 kg
Dilophosaurus
225.000
60.000
610.000
454.000
167000
3D
Dilophosaurus
26.6’-28.9’ | 8.1-8.8 m
6.1’-6.6’ | 1.85-2 m
80’-85’ | 24.4-26 m
60,000-160,000 lb | 27,215-72,575 kg
70-80 years
Diplodocus
880.000
200.000
2600.000
72575.000
80.00
240000
3D
Diplodocus
7.2’-11.2’ | 2.2-3.4 m
18.5”-28.3” | 47-72 cm
13’-20’ | 3.96-6.1 m
500-970 lb | 227-440 kg
10-20 years
Gallimimus
340.000
72.000
610.000
440.000
20.00
52000
3D
Gallimimus
11.5’-15.75’ | 3.5-4.8 m
3.9’-5.25’ | 1.2-1.6 m
29.5’-39.4’ | 9-12 m
8,000-11,000 lb | 3,629-4,990 kg
25-40 years
Iguanodon
480.000
160.000
1200.000
4990.000
40.00
85000
3D
Iguanodon
14.4’-19.4’ | 4.4-5.9 m
4.6’-6.6’ | 1.4-2 m
29.5’-39.4’ | 9-12 m
8,000-11,200 lb | 3,629-5,080 kg
25-30 years
Lambeosaurus
590.000
200.000
1200.000
5080.000
30.00
13000
3D
Lambeosaurus
8.2’-9.2’ | 2.5-2.8 m
3.3’-3.9’ | 1-1.2 m
26.2’-29.5’ | 8-9 m
5,600-10,000 lb | 2,540-4,536 kg
Maiasaura
280.000
120.000
900.000
4536.000
25000
3D
Maiasaura
20.3’-37.4’ | 6.2-11.4 m
5.25’-9.8’ | 1.6-3 m
49.2’-85.3’ | 15-26 m
60,000-176,000 lb | 27,216-79,832 kg
35-45 years
Mamenchisaurus
1140.000
300.000
2600.000
79832.000
45.00
15000
3D
Mamenchisaurus
6.4’-7.1’ | 1.95-2.15 m
19.7”-27.6” | 50-70 cm
11.5’-12.5’ | 3.5-3.8 m
220-370 lb | 100-168 kg
Ornithomimus
215.000
70.000
380.000
168.000
11000
3D
Ornithomimus
4.3’-7.2’ | 1.3-2.2 m
19.7”-33.5” | 50-85 cm
9.8’-16.4’ | 3-5 m
815-992 lb | 370-450 kg
Pachycephalosaurus
220.000
85.000
500.000
450.000
101000
3D
Pachycephalosaurus
14.4’-18.4’ | 4.4-5.6 m
3.9’-4.9’ | 1.2-1.5 m
29.5’-36’ | 9-11 m
6,000-8,000 lb | 2,722-3,629 kg
55-70 years
Parasaurolophus
560.000
150.000
1100.000
3629.000
70.00
101000
3D
Parasaurolophus
11.5' | 3.5 m
46' | 14 m
Plesiosaurus
350.000
1400.000
14000
3D
Plesiosaurus
19.7”-23.6” | 50-60 cm
13.8”-19.7” | 35-50 cm
4.9’-5.9’ | 1.5-1.8 m
350-400 lb | 159-181 kg
Protoceratops
60.000
50.000
180.000
181.000
29000
3D
Protoceratops
19.5' | 6 m
6' | 1.83 m
Pterodactyl
600.000
183.000
116000
3D
Pterodactyl
20’-25.6’ | 6.1-7.8 m (Overall)
5.25’-6.9’ | 1.6-2.1 m
46’-59’ | 14-18 m
14,100-16,300 lb | 6,400-7,400 kg
25-30 years
Spinosaurus
780.000
210.000
1800.000
7400.000
30.00
507000
3D
Spinosaurus
10.8’-14.8’ | 3.3-4.5 m (Overall)
3.9’-5.9’ | 1.2-1.8 m
21.3’-30’ | 6.5-9.1 m
6,800-8,400 lb | 3,100-3,800 kg
75-100 years
Stegosaurus
450.000
180.000
910.000
3800.000
100.00
392000
3D
Stegosaurus
7.2’-8.9’ | 2.2-2.7 m
3.6’-4.3’ | 1.1-1.3 m
16.4’-19.7’ | 5-6 m
5,400-6,000 lb | 2,450-2,722 kg
35-45 years
Styracosaurus
270.000
130.000
600.000
2722.000
45.00
39000
3D
Styracosaurus
1.6’-3.3’ | .5-1 m
5.9”-11.8” | 15-30 cm
3.9’-8.2’ | 1.2-2.5 m
24-49 lb | 11-22 kg
Thecodontosaurus
100.000
30.000
250.000
22.000
1500
3D
Thecodontosaurus
10.8’-12.5’ | 3.3-3.8 m
6.6’-7.5’ | 2-2.3 m
26.2’-29.5’ | 8-9 m
11,000-19,800 lb | 5,000-9,000 kg
40-70 years
Triceratops
380.000
230.000
900.000
9000.000
70.00
617000
3D
Triceratops
6.9’-8.2’ | 2.1-2.5 m
3.3’-3.9’ | 1-1.2 m
19.7’-23’ | 6-7 m
5,600-8,000 lb | 2,540-3,629 kg
20-25 years
Tuojiangosaurus
250.000
120.000
700.000
3629.000
25.00
4200
3D
Tuojiangosaurus
15.75’-17.7’ | 4.8-5.4 m
5.25’-6.2’ | 1.6-1.9 m
36’-40’ | 11-12.2 m
12,600-15,400 lb | 5,7000-7,000 kg
20-28 years
Tyrannosaurus | T-Rex
540.000
190.000
12200.000
7000.000
28.00
715000
3D
Tyrannosaurus | T-Rex
Argentinosaurus (Argentinosaurus huinculensis)
Comparison illustration of the size of a Argentinosaurus to a person

The Argentinosaurus is a sauropod dinosaur that lived in the Late Cretaceous period in modern day Argentina. Its generic name means ”Argentine Lizard”. While only known from fragmentary remains, the Argentinosaurus is one of the largest-known land animals of all time, if not the largest. Because of the fragmentary nature of the remains, the Argentinosaurus’ interpretation is difficult, as there are multiple arguments around the position of the recovered vertebrae within the vertebral column. The first remain, a fibula, was discovered by Guillermo Heredia in 1987 on his farm in Neuquen Province, Argentina.

The Argentinosaurus had an overall length between 98’-115’ (30-35 m), standing height of 39.4’-45.9’ (12-14 m), body width of 12.5’-14.8’ (3.8-4.5 m), and weight from 110,000-220,000 lb (49,895-99,790 kg). The typical lifespan of the Argentinosaurus was between 35-45 years.

Set of scaled drawings of the Argentinosaurus with dimensions
The Argentinosaurus is a sauropod dinosaur that lived in the Late Cretaceous period in modern day Argentina. Its generic name means ”Argentine Lizard”. While only known from fragmentary remains, the Argentinosaurus is one of the largest-known land animals of all time, if not the largest.

The Argentinosaurus had an overall length between 98’-115’ (30-35 m), standing height of 39.4’-45.9’ (12-14 m), body width of 12.5’-14.8’ (3.8-4.5 m), and weight from 110,000-220,000 lb (49,895-99,790 kg). The typical lifespan of the Argentinosaurus was between 35-45 years.

Set of scaled drawings of the Argentinosaurus with dimensions
Argentinosaurus (Argentinosaurus huinculensis)
Height:
39.4’-45.9’ | 12-14 m
Width:
12.5’-14.8’ | 3.8-4.5 m
Length:
98’-115’ | 30-35 m
Depth:
Weight:
110,000-220,000 lb | 49,895-99,790 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Argentinosaurus huinculensis
Lifespan
35-45 years

Drawings include:

Argentinosaurus top view, side

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Protoceratops (Protoceratops andrewsi)
Comparison illustration of the size of a Protoceratops to a person

The Protoceratops is a herbivorous ceratopsian dinosaur that lived in the Upper Cretaceous Period in what is now Mongolia. It was a member of the Protoceratopsidae, a group of early horned dinosaurs. It was a quadrupedal dinosaur that was characterized by its distinctive neck frill at the back of its skull; the frill had two large parietal fenestrae (holes in the frill), and the cheeks had large jugal bones. Comparisons between the scleral rings of the Protoceratops and modern birds and reptiles indicate that the dinosaur had a cathemeral lifestyle- active throughout the day during short intervals.

The Protoceratops had an overall length between 4.9’-5.9’ (1.5-1.8 m), standing height of 19.7”-23.6” (50-60 cm), and body width of 13.8”-19.7” (35-50 cm). The weight of the Protoceratops was between 350-400 lb (159-181 kg).

Set of scaled drawings of the Protoceratops with dimensions
The Protoceratops is a herbivorous ceratopsian dinosaur that lived in the Upper Cretaceous Period in what is now Mongolia. It was a member of the Protoceratopsidae, a group of early horned dinosaurs. It was a quadrupedal dinosaur that was characterized by its distinctive neck frill on the skull.

The Protoceratops had an overall length between 4.9’-5.9’ (1.5-1.8 m), standing height of 19.7”-23.6” (50-60 cm), and body width of 13.8”-19.7” (35-50 cm). The weight of the Protoceratops was between 350-400 lb (159-181 kg).

Set of scaled drawings of the Protoceratops with dimensions
Protoceratops (Protoceratops andrewsi)
Height:
19.7”-23.6” | 50-60 cm
Width:
13.8”-19.7” | 35-50 cm
Length:
4.9’-5.9’ | 1.5-1.8 m
Depth:
Weight:
350-400 lb | 159-181 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Protoceratops andrewsi
Lifespan

Drawings include:

Protoceratops top view, side

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Spinosaurus (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus)
Comparison illustration of the size of a Spinosaurus to a person

About 99 million years ago, Spinosaurus (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus) was common in North Africa. Evidence (with the nostrils on top of their snouts and webbed feet) shows that it was terrestrial and semiaquatic, feeding mainly on fish. This dinosaur was first bipedal but later grew to be quadrupedal. It was the largest, longest, and heaviest among carnivorous dinosaurs with a long, low, narrow skull, large, robust forelimbs, and a long tail with neural spines thought to be for intimidating other animals or thermal regulation. It also had crocodile-like teeth and dense bones like those of the manatees.

The Spinosaurus had an overall length between 46’-59’ (14-18 m), overall standing height of 20’-25.6’ (6.1-7.8 m), body width of 5.25’-6.9’ (1.6-2.1 m), and weight from 14,100-16,300 lb (6,400-7,400 kg). The typical lifespan of the Spinosaurus was between 25-30 years.

Collection of drawings of a Spinosaurus from the front and side with dimensions
Spinosaurus was a large carnivorous Cretaceous period (112-93.5 Mya) dinosaur characterized by its large thin back spikes. A giant predator on both land and water, similar to the present day crocodile, fossils prove that the Spinosaurus was as larger or larger than the Tyrannosaurus Rex.

The Spinosaurus had an overall length between 46’-59’ (14-18 m), overall standing height of 20’-25.6’ (6.1-7.8 m), body width of 5.25’-6.9’ (1.6-2.1 m), and weight from 14,100-16,300 lb (6,400-7,400 kg). The typical lifespan of the Spinosaurus was between 25-30 years.

Collection of drawings of a Spinosaurus from the front and side with dimensions
Spinosaurus (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus)
Height:
20’-25.6’ | 6.1-7.8 m (Overall)
Width:
5.25’-6.9’ | 1.6-2.1 m
Length:
46’-59’ | 14-18 m
Depth:
Weight:
14,100-16,300 lb | 6,400-7,400 kg
Area:

Height (Head): 16.5’ | 5 m

Period: Cretaceous (112-93.5 million years ago)

Scientific Name
Spinosaurus aegyptiacus
Lifespan
25-30 years

Drawings include:
Spinosaurus side elevation, front, back, plan

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Iguanodon (Iguanodon bernissartensis)
Scale illustration of an average Iguanodon compared to a person

The Iguanodon lived about halfway between the first of the swift bipedal hypsilophodontids of the mid-Jurassic and the duck-billed dinosaurs of the late Cretaceous. It is an ornithopod dinosaur that lived in Belgium, Spain, German, England, and in other parts of Europe. It was a large and bulky herbivore; other distinctive features include large thumb spikes, for defense against predators, and long prehensile fifth fingers used to forage food. It is one of the first scientifically well-known dinosaurs, and it also has a notable place in the public’s perception of dinosaurs.

The Iguanodon had an overall length between 29.5’-39.4’ (9-12 m), standing height of 11.5’-15.75’ (3.5-4.8 m), body width of 3.9’-5.25’ (1.2-1.6 m), and weight from 8,000-11,000 lb (3,629-4,990 kg). The typical lifespan of the Iguanodon was between 25-40 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Iguanodon in various poses with dimensions
The Iguanodon lived about halfway between the first of the swift bipedal hypsilophodontids of the mid-Jurassic and the duck-billed dinosaurs of the late Cretaceous. It is an ornithopod dinosaur that lived in Belgium, Spain, German, England, and in other parts of Europe.

The Iguanodon had an overall length between 29.5’-39.4’ (9-12 m), standing height of 11.5’-15.75’ (3.5-4.8 m), body width of 3.9’-5.25’ (1.2-1.6 m), and weight from 8,000-11,000 lb (3,629-4,990 kg). The typical lifespan of the Iguanodon was between 25-40 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Iguanodon in various poses with dimensions
Iguanodon (Iguanodon bernissartensis)
Height:
11.5’-15.75’ | 3.5-4.8 m
Width:
3.9’-5.25’ | 1.2-1.6 m
Length:
29.5’-39.4’ | 9-12 m
Depth:
Weight:
8,000-11,000 lb | 3,629-4,990 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Iguanodon bernissartensis
Lifespan
25-40 years

Drawings include:

Iguanodon top view, side

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Styracosaurus (Styracosaurus albertensis)
Size comparison drawing of the Styracosaurus compared to a person

The Styracosaurus is a herbivorous ceratopsian dinosaur that lived in the Cretaceous Period. It means ”spiked lizard” in Ancient Greek, as it had four to six long parietal spikes that extended from its neck frill, a smaller jugal horn on each of its cheeks, and a single horn that protruded from its nose. Other physical characteristics include four short legs, a bulky body, and a short tail. The skull had a beak and shearing cheek teeth arranged in continuous dental batteries; this suggested that the animal sliced up plants. Like other ceratopsians, the Styracosaurus was a herd animal that traveled in groups.

The Styracosaurus had an overall length between 16.4’-19.7’ (5-6 m), standing height of 7.2’-8.9’ (2.2-2.7 m), body width of 3.6’-4.3’ (1.1-1.3 m), and weight from 5,400-6,000 lb (2,450-2,722 kg). The typical lifespan of the Styracosaurus was between 35-45 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Styracosaurus in various poses with dimensions
The Styracosaurus is a herbivorous ceratopsian dinosaur that lived in the Cretaceous Period. It means ”spiked lizard” in Ancient Greek, as it had four to six long parietal spikes that extended from its neck frill, a smaller jugal horn on each of its cheeks, and a single horn from the nose.

The Styracosaurus had an overall length between 16.4’-19.7’ (5-6 m), standing height of 7.2’-8.9’ (2.2-2.7 m), body width of 3.6’-4.3’ (1.1-1.3 m), and weight from 5,400-6,000 lb (2,450-2,722 kg). The typical lifespan of the Styracosaurus was between 35-45 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Styracosaurus in various poses with dimensions
Styracosaurus (Styracosaurus albertensis)
Height:
7.2’-8.9’ | 2.2-2.7 m
Width:
3.6’-4.3’ | 1.1-1.3 m
Length:
16.4’-19.7’ | 5-6 m
Depth:
Weight:
5,400-6,000 lb | 2,450-2,722 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Styracosaurus albertensis
Lifespan
35-45 years

Drawings include:

Styracosaurus top view, side

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