Eulipotyphla

Eulipotyphla

Description
Description

Eulipotyphla is an order of mammals that encompasses several small to medium-sized insectivorous animals, including hedgehogs, moles, shrews, and solenodons. These creatures are found across various habitats worldwide, from forests and grasslands to underground burrows. They are characterized by their keen sense of smell and hearing, which aid in their insectivorous diet. Evolutionarily, they have ancient origins, with fossil records dating back to the Cretaceous period. Their lineage diverged early in mammalian evolution, developing specialized adaptations for hunting insects and burrowing. Despite their inconspicuous nature, they play a significant role in controlling insect populations and aerating soil, impacting their ecosystems profoundly.

Anatomy
Anatomy

Eulipotyphla members have small, compact bodies adapted for burrowing and insect hunting. Hedgehogs are known for their spiny backs, which they use for defense. Moles have powerful forelimbs and large paws for digging, and their eyes and ears are small due to their subterranean lifestyle. Shrews, the smallest, have sharp teeth and a keen sense of smell to detect prey. These animals primarily use scent and sound to communicate, as many have limited vision. They're agile in their respective environments, whether burrowing underground or navigating through foliage, and they play a vital role in ecosystems by controlling insect populations.

Human Interaction
Human Interaction

Humans have long been fascinated by the unique characteristics of Eulipotyphla, particularly hedgehogs, which have featured in children's stories and video games like "Sonic the Hedgehog." Moles, though less visible, are recognized for their role in soil aeration. However, they are often considered pests in gardens and lawns. Shrews, less known, play crucial roles in controlling insect populations.

Conservation efforts focus on habitat preservation, as these creatures are vital for ecological balance. Educational programs aim to raise awareness about their beneficial roles, dispelling myths and fostering appreciation for these often-overlooked animals.

Common Questions
Common Questions
What are the characteristics of Eulipotyphla members?

The characteristics of Eulipotyphla members include physically being small, long pointed snouts, multiple sharp teeth, small ears, as well as small eyes. Other characteristics include eating insects, specifically worms, crustaceans, and small vertebrates. Members of the Eulipotyphla family also typically have a spiny coat and are known for living underground.

Are moles and shrews considered rodents?

Moles and shrews are not considered rodents as they belong to the insectivore family. The insectivore family consists of small mammals that include bats, insects, insect grubs, worms, snails, slugs, and spiders. They belong to a different family even though they are similar in their physical appearance.

What is the most common Eulipotyphla species?

There are a total of 450 species of Eulipotyphla species with the most common being hedgehogs, shrews, gymnures, desmans, and moles. Other Eulipotyphla species include moonrats, solenodons, white-toothed shrews, red-toothed shrews, and nesophotids. There are 5 families that are part of the Eulipotyphla order.

Animals

* Under Development *

1.4”-1.75” | 3.6-4.4 cm
3”-3.9” | 7.5-10 cm
.42-.63 oz | 12-18 g
1-3 years
American Water Shrew
4.400
10.000
0.018
3.00
100
GUIDE
3D
American Water Shrew
1”-1.5” | 2.5-3.8 cm
2”-3.1” | 5-8 cm
.18-.5 oz | 5-14 g
1-2 years
Common Shrew
3.800
8.000
0.014
2.00
1300
GUIDE
3D
Common Shrew
1.5”-2” | 3.8-5.1 cm
4.3”-6.3” | 11-16 cm
.17-.3 lb | 75-130 g
3-6 years
Eastern Mole
5.100
16.000
0.130
6.00
2100
GUIDE
3D
Eastern Mole
.8”-1.2” | 2-3 cm
1.8”-2.4” | 4.5-6 cm
.09-.21 oz | 2.5-6 g
1-2 years
Eurasian Pygmy Shrew
3.000
6.000
0.006
2.00
40
GUIDE
3D
Eurasian Pygmy Shrew
2.6”-4” | 6.6-10.2 cm
6”-9” | 15.2-22.9 cm
.9-1.3 lb | 400-600 g
2-4 years (wild), up to 6-10 years (captivity)
Four-Toed Hedgehog
10.200
22.900
0.600
10.00
3750
GUIDE
3D
Four-Toed Hedgehog
6”-7” | 15.2-17.8 cm
11”-12.6” | 28-32 cm
1.5-2.2 lb | .7-1 kg
10-12 years (captivity)
Hispaniolan Solenodon
17.800
32.000
1.000
12.00
3400
GUIDE
3D
Hispaniolan Solenodon
5.5”-8.25” | 14-21 cm
11.8”-17.7” | 30-45 cm
1.9-2.4 lb | .8-1.1 kg
3-7 years (wild); up to 7 years (captivity)
Moonrat
21.000
45.000
1.100
7.00
3700
GUIDE
3D
Moonrat
Eastern Mole

The Eastern Mole (Scalopus aquaticus) is a medium size mole that has hairless feet that are adapted specifically for digging. They are native to Canada, Mexico, and eastern United States. They prefer warmer climates, rather than the cold. The diet of the Eastern Mole consists of earthworms, and sometimes vegetables.

They are the prey of dogs, cat, foxes, and coyotes. Eastern moles are blind, but are able to detect light and find their food through their sense of touch and smell.

Eastern Moles have a shoulder height of 1.5”-2” (3.8-5.1 cm), body length between 4.3”-6.3” (11-16 cm), and an overall weight in the range of .17-.3 lb (75-130 g). The tail of the Eastern Mole is 1”-1.6” (2.5-4 cm) in length. Eastern Moles have a typical lifespan of 3-6 years.

Set of measured side and front elevation drawings of the Eastern Mole
The Eastern Mole (Scalopus aquaticus) is a medium size mole that has hairless feet that are adapted specifically for digging. They are native to Canada, Mexico, and eastern United States and prefer warmer climates, rather than the cold. Their diet consists of earthworms, and occasional vegetables.

Eastern Moles have a shoulder height of 1.5”-2” (3.8-5.1 cm), body length between 4.3”-6.3” (11-16 cm), and an overall weight in the range of .17-.3 lb (75-130 g). The tail of the Eastern Mole is 1”-1.6” (2.5-4 cm) in length. Eastern Moles have a typical lifespan of 3-6 years.

Set of measured side and front elevation drawings of the Eastern Mole
Eastern Mole
Height:
1.5”-2” | 3.8-5.1 cm
Width:
Length:
4.3”-6.3” | 11-16 cm
Depth:
Weight:
.17-.3 lb | 75-130 g
Area:
Tail Length
1”-1.6” | 2.5-4 cm
Scientific Name
Scalopus aquaticus
Lifespan
3-6 years

Drawings include:

Eastern Mole side elevation (standing), front (mole hill)

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Moonrat

The Moonrat (Echinosorex gymnura) is a small mammal species not directly related to rats as its name or resemblance suggest. It is the primitive to the tropical hedgehog and has a long tail and black and white fur instead of spines. Moonrats are native to the jungle regions of southern Myanmar, the Thailand Peninsula, Malaysia Peninsula, Borneo, and Sumatra. The Moonrat has a distinct ammonia-like or rotten garlic odor that can be smelled from yards away. Their diet typically consists of snails, crabs, small vertebrates, and fruit.

Moonrats have a shoulder height of 5.5”-8.25” (14-21 cm), body length between 11.8”-17.7” (30-45 cm), and an overall weight in the range of 1.9-2.4 lb (.8-1.1 kg). The tail of the Moonrat is 7.9”-11.8” (20-30 cm) in length. Moonrats have a typical lifespan of 3-7 years in wild and up to 7 years when raised in captivity.

Set of standing side elevation drawings of the Moonrat
The Moonrat (Echinosorex gymnura) is a small mammal species not directly related to rats as its name or resemblance suggest. It is the primitive to the tropical hedgehog and has a long tail and black and white fur instead of spines. The Moonrat has a distinct ammonia-like or rotten garlic odor.

Moonrats have a shoulder height of 5.5”-8.25” (14-21 cm), body length between 11.8”-17.7” (30-45 cm), and an overall weight in the range of 1.9-2.4 lb (.8-1.1 kg). The tail of the Moonrat is 7.9”-11.8” (20-30 cm) in length. Moonrats have a typical lifespan of 3-7 years in wild and up to 7 years when raised in captivity.

Set of standing side elevation drawings of the Moonrat
Moonrat
Height:
5.5”-8.25” | 14-21 cm
Width:
Length:
11.8”-17.7” | 30-45 cm
Depth:
Weight:
1.9-2.4 lb | .8-1.1 kg
Area:
Tail Length
7.9”-11.8” | 20-30 cm
Scientific Name
Echinosorex gymnura
Lifespan
3-7 years (wild); up to 7 years (captivity)

Drawings include:

Moonrat side elevation (standing), front (standing)

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Four-Toed Hedgehog | African Pygmy Hedgehog

The Four-Toed Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), also known as the African Pygmy Hedgehog, is a small mammal with a long snout, short spines on their back, and an underside that is covered in soft white or brown fur. It has an oval shaped body covered in spines that are used as protection by rolling into a ball when they feel threatened. As its name implies, it has 4 toes on each hindfoot.

Female Four-Toed Hedgehogs are typically larger than males and they also have large ears and whiskers. This species of hedgehogs is native to the central and eastern African region where they typically live in the savannah and cropland habitats. The Four-Toed Hedgehog is a nocturnal animal and is typically alone. Their diet includes insects, grubs, snails, spiders, and small plants. They are one of the most popular species of domesticated hedgehogs.

Four-Toed Hedgehogs have a shoulder height of 2.6”-4” (6.6-10.2 cm), body length between 6”-9” (15.2-22.9 cm), and an overall weight in the range of .9-1.3 lb (400-600 g). The tail of the Four-Toed Hedgehog is 1-1.5” (2.5-3.8 cm) in length. Four-Toed Hedgehogs have a typical lifespan of 2-4 years in the wild and up to 6-10 years when raised in captivity as a pet.

Collection of dimensioned and scaled illustrations of Four-Toed Hedgehog in various standing poses
The Four-Toed Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), also known as the African Pygmy Hedgehog, is a small mammal with a long snout, short spines on their back, and an underside that is covered in soft white or brown fur. It has an oval shaped body covered in spines that are used as protection.

Four-Toed Hedgehogs have a shoulder height of 2.6”-4” (6.6-10.2 cm), body length between 6”-9” (15.2-22.9 cm), and an overall weight in the range of .9-1.3 lb (400-600 g). The tail of the Four-Toed Hedgehog is 1-1.5” (2.5-3.8 cm) in length. Four-Toed Hedgehogs have a typical lifespan of 2-4 years in the wild and up to 6-10 years when raised in captivity as a pet.

Collection of dimensioned and scaled illustrations of Four-Toed Hedgehog in various standing poses
Four-Toed Hedgehog | African Pygmy Hedgehog
Height:
2.6”-4” | 6.6-10.2 cm
Width:
Length:
6”-9” | 15.2-22.9 cm
Depth:
Weight:
.9-1.3 lb | 400-600 g
Area:
Tail Length
1-1.5” | 2.5-3.8 cm
Scientific Name
Atelerix albiventris
Lifespan
2-4 years (wild), up to 6-10 years (captivity)

Drawings include:

Four-Toed Hedgehog side elevation (standing), front (standing), side (sitting), front (sitting)

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Hispaniolan Solenodon

The Hispaniolan Solenodon (Solenodon paradoxus) is a mammal similar to the shrew as they have long snouts and tails, hairless feet, and small eyes. The two species of solenodon are native to Cuba and Hispaniola and are generally found in forests and shrubland. They are mainly terrestrial, but are able to climb.

Solenodons mostly eat insects, earthworms, invertebrates, carrions, and small reptiles. They have a musk smell, poor vision, and rely on their other senses to get around. They are considered to be endangered due to the destruction of their habitat and other predators.

Hispaniolan Solenodons have a shoulder height of 6”-7” (15.2-17.8 cm), body length between 11”-12.6” (28-32 cm), and an overall weight in the range of 1.5-2.2 lb (.7-1 kg). The tail of the Hispaniolan Solenodon is 6.7”-9.8” (17-25 cm) in length. Hispaniolan Solenodons have a typical lifespan of 10-12 years in captivity.

Series of side elevation illustrations of the Hispaniolan Solenodon
The Hispaniolan Solenodon (Solenodon paradoxus) is a mammal similar to the shrew as they have long snouts and tails, hairless feet, and small eyes. The two species of solenodon are native to Cuba and Hispaniola and are generally found in forests and shrubland.

Hispaniolan Solenodons have a shoulder height of 6”-7” (15.2-17.8 cm), body length between 11”-12.6” (28-32 cm), and an overall weight in the range of 1.5-2.2 lb (.7-1 kg). The tail of the Hispaniolan Solenodon is 6.7”-9.8” (17-25 cm) in length. Hispaniolan Solenodons have a typical lifespan of 10-12 years in captivity.

Series of side elevation illustrations of the Hispaniolan Solenodon
Hispaniolan Solenodon
Height:
6”-7” | 15.2-17.8 cm
Width:
Length:
11”-12.6” | 28-32 cm
Depth:
Weight:
1.5-2.2 lb | .7-1 kg
Area:
Tail Length
6.7”-9.8” | 17-25 cm
Scientific Name
Solenodon paradoxus
Lifespan
10-12 years (captivity)

Drawings include:

Hispaniolan Solenodon side elevation (standing), front (standing)

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Eurasian Pygmy Shrew

The Eurasian Pygmy Shrew (Sorex minutus) is the second smallest mammal in the world as they weigh less than an ounce and have a tiny body. The Pygmy Shrew has a narrow head with a pointed nose and whiskers. They are native to Britain and Ireland. The Eurasian Pygmy Shrew also needs to be constantly eating as it has a fast metabolism. Pygmy shrews are active both day and night. Their diet mostly consists of insects and insect larvae.

Eurasian Pygmy Shrews have a shoulder height of .8”-1.2” (2-3 cm), body length between 1.8”-2.4” (4.5-6 cm), and an overall weight in the range of .09-.21 oz (2.5-6 g). The tail of the Eurasian Pygmy Shrew is .8”-1.6” (2-4 cm) in length. Eurasian Pygmy Shrews have a typical lifespan of 1-2 years.

Dimensioned collection of scaled drawings of Eurasian Pygmy Shrew in various poses
The Eurasian Pygmy Shrew (Sorex minutus) is the second smallest mammal in the world as they weigh less than an ounce and have a tiny body. The Pygmy Shrew has a narrow head with a pointed nose and whiskers. They are native to Britain and Ireland. The Eurasian Pygmy Shrew needs constant sustenance.

Eurasian Pygmy Shrews have a shoulder height of .8”-1.2” (2-3 cm), body length between 1.8”-2.4” (4.5-6 cm), and an overall weight in the range of .09-.21 oz (2.5-6 g). The tail of the Eurasian Pygmy Shrew is .8”-1.6” (2-4 cm) in length. Eurasian Pygmy Shrews have a typical lifespan of 1-2 years.

Dimensioned collection of scaled drawings of Eurasian Pygmy Shrew in various poses
Eurasian Pygmy Shrew
Height:
.8”-1.2” | 2-3 cm
Width:
Length:
1.8”-2.4” | 4.5-6 cm
Depth:
Weight:
.09-.21 oz | 2.5-6 g
Area:
Tail Length
.8”-1.6” | 2-4 cm
Scientific Name
Sorex minutus
Lifespan
1-2 years

Drawings include:

Eurasian Pygmy Shrew side elevation (standing), front (standing), side (sitting), top

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