Mollusks | Mollusca

Mollusks | Mollusca

Description
Description

Mollusks, belonging to the phylum Mollusca, are a diverse group of invertebrates that includes snails, clams, squids, and octopuses. With a lineage dating back over 500 million years, they've evolved into various forms and sizes, adapting to marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. Most mollusks have a soft body, often protected by a hard shell, and they use a muscular foot for movement. They play critical ecological roles, from acting as filter feeders to being apex predators. Mollusks also have significant economic importance, with many species being harvested for food, pearls, and shells.

Anatomy
Anatomy

Mollusks are a varied group, but most share key traits. Typically, they have a soft body encased in a hard shell for protection. They move using a muscular foot that can glide, burrow, or even jet-propel in the case of squids. While they don't have "speech," some can communicate using color changes or by releasing chemicals. Their senses vary widely: cephalopods like octopuses have complex eyes and brains, while others have simpler sensory organs. Mollusks feed in various ways, from filter-feeding clams to predatory squids. Their diverse anatomies reflect their wide range of lifestyles and habitats.

Human Interaction
Human Interaction

Humans have interacted with mollusks for millennia, valuing them for food, jewelry (pearls), and even currency (cowrie shells). Dishes like escargot, oysters, and calamari are culinary delicacies. In pop culture, mollusks feature in tales like "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea" or animations like "Finding Nemo."

Conservation efforts are crucial as many mollusk species face threats from pollution, overfishing, and habitat destruction. Organizations work to protect habitats and regulate harvesting to ensure sustainable populations. Marine sanctuaries and breeding programs also aid in preserving vulnerable species, highlighting the importance of mollusks in biodiversity and human culture.

Common Questions
Common Questions
What do mollusks eat?

A mollusk’s diet may vary depending on its species. For example, mollusks that have their body between 2 shells are herbivores that eat algae. Meanwhile, squids and octopuses eat fish and other sea creatures. Mollusk snails can be either herbivores or carnivores.

How do mollusks move?

The way a mollusk moves depends if it lives on land or water. Mollusks that live on land move very slowly on a foot. Mollusks that live in the water eject water out of their body to move themselves. Some mollusks, like oysters and clams, do not move but rather attach themselves to a rock or a surface.

How do mollusks breath?

Aquatic mollusks breath by using gills, called ctenidia that are in their mantle cavity. Mollusks that live on land do not have gills and breathe through their mantle cavity that has a surface lined with blood vessels. Diffusion of air happens through the moist skin of mollusks.

Animals

* Under Development *

9.8”-15” | 25-38 cm
.35-3.1 lb | .16-1.4 kg
.5-1 year
Bigfin Reef Squid
38.000
1.400
1.00
1600
GUIDE
3D
Bigfin Reef Squid
13’-26.25’ | 4-8 m
.35-3.1 lb | .16-1.4 kg
Bigfin Squid
800.000
1.400
55450
GUIDE
3D
Bigfin Squid
5.91”-15.35” | 15-39 cm
9.45”-23.62” | 24-60 cm
15”-39” | 38-99 cm
15-31 lb | 6.8-14 kg
1 year
Black Sea Hare
39.000
60.000
99.000
14.000
1.00
5800
GUIDE
3D
Black Sea Hare
.55”-.98” | 1.4-2.5 cm
.59”-1.18” | 1.5-3 cm
3.15”-5.91” | 8-15 cm
1-2 years
Black Slug
2.500
3.000
15.000
2.00
2900
GUIDE
3D
Black Slug
2.36”-3.15” | 6-8 cm
3.94”-4.53” | 10-11.5 cm
7.87”-9.84” | 20-25 cm
2-3 years
California Mussel
8.000
11.500
25.000
3.00
550
GUIDE
3D
California Mussel
18”-23” | 46-58 cm (Arm)
4.4-8.8 lb | 2-4 kg
1-2 years
California Two-Spot Octopus
58.000
4.000
2.00
1500
GUIDE
3D
California Two-Spot Octopus
19.7”-23.6” | 50-60 cm (Arm)
2.2-3.3 lb | 1-1.5 kg
10-12 months
Caribbean Reef Octopus
60.000
1.500
1.00
1060
GUIDE
3D
Caribbean Reef Octopus
4.7”-7.9” | 12-20 cm
1-3 years
Caribbean Reef Squid
20.000
3.00
1590
GUIDE
3D
Caribbean Reef Squid
6.3”-8.3” | 16-21 cm
.88-1.3 lb | .4-.6 kg
15-20 years
Chambered Nautilus
21.000
0.600
20.00
15400
GUIDE
3D
Chambered Nautilus
9.8’-13.1’ | 3-4 m
2-3 years
Cockatoo Squid
400.000
3.00
730
GUIDE
3D
Cockatoo Squid
2.75”-3.5” | 7-9 cm (Arm)
.5-1.5 lb | .23-.69 kg
3-5 years
Coconut Octopus
9.000
0.690
5.00
4450
GUIDE
3D
Coconut Octopus
30’-49’ | 9-15 m
330-1091 lb | 150-495 kg
Colossal Squid
1500.000
495.000
137100
GUIDE
3D
Colossal Squid
6’-6.6’ | 1.83-2 m
~2.2 lb | 1 kg
3-5 years
Common Blanket Octopus
200.000
1.000
5.00
630
GUIDE
3D
Common Blanket Octopus
6”-10” | 15-25 cm
4.4-8.8 lb | 2-4 kg
1-2 years
Common Cuttlefish
25.000
4.000
2.00
9100
GUIDE
3D
Common Cuttlefish
29.9”-39.4” | 76-100 cm (Arm)
6.6-22 lb | 3-10 kg
1-2 years
Common Octopus
100.000
10.000
2.00
22300
GUIDE
3D
Common Octopus
.43”-1.06” | 1.1-2.7 cm
.43”-1.06” | 1.1-2.7 cm
.63”-1.5” | 1.6-3.8 cm
4-10 years
Common Periwinkle
2.700
2.700
3.800
10.00
3500
GUIDE
3D
Common Periwinkle
1.85”-2.56” | 4.7-6.5 cm
1.57”-2.36” | 4-6 cm
3.15”-4.33” | 8-11 cm
.11-.22 lb | .05-.1 kg
10-15 years
Common Whelk
6.500
6.000
11.000
0.100
15.00
2950
GUIDE
3D
Common Whelk
39”-51” | 99-130 cm
44-66 lb | 20-30 kg
1 year
Diamond Squid
130.000
30.000
1.00
750
GUIDE
3D
Diamond Squid
7.9”-11.8” | 20-30 cm
2-13 lb | .9-5.9 kg
3-5 years
Dumbo Octopus
30.000
5.900
5.00
94040
GUIDE
3D
Dumbo Octopus
11.8”-19.7” | 30-50 cm (Arm)
.22-.88 lb | .1-.4 kg
1-2 years
East Pacific Red Octopus
50.000
0.400
2.00
660
GUIDE
3D
East Pacific Red Octopus
9.5”-2.6” | 2.4-6.6 cm
1.77”-4.92” | 4.5-12.5 cm
3”-8” | 7.6-20.3 cm
.88-1.98 lb | .4-.9 kg
10-20 years
Eastern Oyster
6.600
12.500
20.300
0.900
20.00
2000
GUIDE
3D
Eastern Oyster
3.9”-5.1” | 10-13 cm
.66-.88 lb | .3-.4 kg
1.5-2 years
Flamboyant Cuttlefish
13.000
0.400
2.00
5800
GUIDE
3D
Flamboyant Cuttlefish
.98”-1.77” | 2.5-4.5 cm
.98”-1.57” | 2.5-4 cm
1.97”-3.54” | 5-9 cm
.015-.03 lb | .007-.015 kg
2-5 years
Garden Snail
4.500
4.000
9.000
0.015
5.00
7100
GUIDE
3D
Garden Snail
3.46”-5.12” | 8.8-13 cm
3.54”-4.72” | 9-12 cm
7.87”-11.81” | 20-30 cm (Overall)
.44-1 lb | .2-.45 kg
5-9 years
Giant African Snail
13.000
12.000
30.000
0.450
9.00
10800
GUIDE
3D
Giant African Snail
7’-13’ | 2.13-3.96 m (Arm)
22-110 lb | 10-50 kg
3-5 years
Giant Pacific Octopus
396.000
50.000
5.00
35000
GUIDE
3D
Giant Pacific Octopus
3’-5’6” | .91-1.68 m
33’-46’ | 10-14 m
440-2,000 lb | 200-907 kg
2-5 years
Giant Squid
168.000
1400.000
907.000
5.00
88000
GUIDE
3D
Giant Squid
15.75”-17.7” | 40-45 cm
.06-.07 lb | .025-.03 kg
Glass Octopus
45.000
0.030
14800
GUIDE
3D
Glass Octopus
11.8”-17.7” | 30-45 cm
.06-.07 lb | .025-.03 kg
1 year
Greater Argonaut
45.000
0.030
1.00
1320
GUIDE
3D
Greater Argonaut
4.7”-5.9” | 12-15 cm
.02-.22 lb | .01-.1 kg
2-3 years
Greater Blue-Ringed Octopus
15.000
0.100
3.00
650
GUIDE
3D
Greater Blue-Ringed Octopus
4.9’-8.2’ | 1.5-2.5 m
99-110 lb | 45-50 kg
1-2 years
Humboldt Squid
250.000
50.000
2.00
28600
GUIDE
3D
Humboldt Squid
11.8”-19.7” | 30-50 cm
.22-1.1 lb | .1-.5 kg
1 year
Japanese Flying Squid
50.000
0.500
1.00
1600
GUIDE
3D
Japanese Flying Squid
4.7”-5.9” | 12-15 cm
1 year
Japanese Squid
15.000
1.00
2100
GUIDE
3D
Japanese Squid
3.15”-5.51” | 8-14 cm
3.15”-5.91” | 8-15 cm
5”-9” | 12.7-22.9 cm
.88-1.98 lb | .4-.9 kg
10-15 years
Knobbed Whelk
14.000
15.000
22.900
0.900
15.00
860
GUIDE
3D
Knobbed Whelk
.39”-.79” | 1-2 cm
.55”-1.02” | 1.4-2.6 cm
3.94”-7.87” | 10-20 cm
2-4 years
Leopard Slug
2.000
2.600
20.000
4.00
8200
GUIDE
3D
Leopard Slug
1.57”-8.27” | 4-21 cm
1.57”-8.27” | 4-21 cm
2.5”-16” | 6.4-40.6 cm
1.54-1.98 lb | .7-.9 kg
10-15 years
Lightning Whelk
21.000
21.000
40.600
0.900
15.00
1400
GUIDE
3D
Lightning Whelk
23.6”-27.6” | 60-70 cm
5-20 lb | 2.3-9.1 kg
.75-2 years
Mimic Octopus
70.000
9.100
2.00
16350
GUIDE
3D
Mimic Octopus
4.33”-9.06” | 11-23 cm
5.12”-9.84” | 13-25 cm
6”-12” | 15.2-30.5 cm
3-5 lb | 1.36-2.27 kg
20-40 years
Queen Conch
23.000
25.000
30.500
2.270
40.00
4300
GUIDE
3D
Queen Conch
9.5’-11.5’ | 2.9-3.5 m
135-165 lb | 61-75 kg
2-10 years
Seven-Arm Octopus
350.000
75.000
10.00
1300
GUIDE
3D
Seven-Arm Octopus
.8”-1” | 2-2.5 cm
~.002 lb | .001 kg
.5-1.5 years
Star-Sucker Pygmy Octopus
2.500
0.001
1.50
1120
GUIDE
3D
Star-Sucker Pygmy Octopus
13”-39.4” | 33-100 cm
Strawberry Squid
100.000
17890
GUIDE
3D
Strawberry Squid
4.3”-10.6” | 11-27 cm
Telescope Octopus
27.000
2440
GUIDE
3D
Telescope Octopus
6”-12” | 15-30 cm
~1 lb | .45 kg
6-10 years
Vampire Squid
30.000
0.450
10.00
79600
GUIDE
3D
Vampire Squid
1.57”-3.15” | 4-8 cm
3.94”-7.87” | 10-20 cm
5”-10” | 12.7-25.4 cm
1-2 lb | .45-.91 kg
30-40 years
White Abalone
8.000
20.000
25.400
0.910
40.00
790
GUIDE
3D
White Abalone
Giant Pacific Octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini)
Comparison illustration of the size of a Giant Pacific Octopus to other cephalopods

The Giant Pacific Octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) is the largest octopus species and lives longer than any other octopus. They are highly intelligent as they are known to use tools and also recognize faces. The Giant Pacific Octopus has a large head, is red-brown in color, and like most other octopuses is able to change colors and textures. The Giant Pacific Octopus can be found along the coast of the North Pacific and are highly adapted to cold waters. They hunt at night and generally eat shrimp, clams, lobsters, and fish. Some also attack both sharks and fish with their hard beaks.

The Giant Pacific Octopus has an arm length between 7’-13’ (2.13-3.96 m), mantle length of 19.7”-23.6” (50-60 cm), and weight of 22-110 lb (10-50 kg). The typical lifespan of the Giant Pacific Octopus is between 3-5 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Giant Pacific Octopus in various poses
The Giant Pacific Octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) is the largest octopus species and lives longer than any other octopus. They are highly intelligent as they are known to use tools and also recognize faces. The Giant Pacific Octopus has a large head and is red-brown in color.

The Giant Pacific Octopus has an arm length between 7’-13’ (2.13-3.96 m), mantle length of 19.7”-23.6” (50-60 cm), and weight of 22-110 lb (10-50 kg). The typical lifespan of the Giant Pacific Octopus is between 3-5 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Giant Pacific Octopus in various poses
Giant Pacific Octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini)
Height:
Width:
Length:
7’-13’ | 2.13-3.96 m (Arm)
Depth:
Weight:
22-110 lb | 10-50 kg
Area:

Mantle Length: 19.7”-23.6” | 50-60 cm

Scientific Name
Enteroctopus dofleini
Lifespan
3-5 years

Drawings include:

Giant Pacific Octopus side elevation, front

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3D Downloads

Common Blanket Octopus (Tremoctopus violaceus)
Scale illustration of an average Common Blanket Octopus compared to other cephalopod species

The Common Blanket Octopus (Tremoctopus violaceus) is a cephalopod that was named after the webbing between their arms. Females are much larger in size than males. Whenever the Common Blanket Octopus feels threatened, they stretch their arms to create a blanket-like silhouette to frighten any predators away. They generally can be found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, easily adapt to different water temperatures, and never rest on the ocean floor. Common Blanket Octopuses are carnivorous and prey on fish by using a ripped tentacle from toxic jellyfish as a weapon. Common Blanket Octopuses are listed as least concern to extinction.

The Common Blanket Octopus has an overall length between 6’-6.6’ (1.83-2 m), mantle length of 7.1”-9.8” (18-25 cm), and weight of roughly 2.2 lb (1 kg). The typical lifespan of the Common Blanket Octopus is between 3-5 years.

Series of elevation illustrations of the Common Blanket Octopus
The Common Blanket Octopus (Tremoctopus violaceus) is a cephalopod that was named after the webbing between their arms. Females are much larger in size than males. Whenever the Common Blanket Octopus feels threatened, they stretch their arms to create a blanket-like silhouette to frighten predators.

The Common Blanket Octopus has an overall length between 6’-6.6’ (1.83-2 m), mantle length of 7.1”-9.8” (18-25 cm), and weight of roughly 2.2 lb (1 kg). The typical lifespan of the Common Blanket Octopus is between 3-5 years.

Series of elevation illustrations of the Common Blanket Octopus
Common Blanket Octopus (Tremoctopus violaceus)
Height:
Width:
Length:
6’-6.6’ | 1.83-2 m
Depth:
Weight:
~2.2 lb | 1 kg
Area:

Mantle Length: 7.1”-9.8” | 18-25 cm

Scientific Name
Tremoctopus violaceus
Lifespan
3-5 years

Drawings include:

Common Blanket Octopus side elevation, front

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Humboldt Squid (Dosidicus gigas)
Scale illustration of an average Humboldt Squid compared to other cephalopod species

The Humboldt Squid (Dosidicus gigas) also known as the Jumbo Squid is a cephalopod named after its large size. Humboldt Squids have also been nicknamed the ‘red devil’ due to their aggressive nature and their ability to light themselves through bioluminescence flashes of red and white. Jumbo Squids are native to the eastern Pacific Ocean and are typically found at water depths of 660 to 2,300 ft (200 to 700 m). The Humboldt Squid is an excellent swimmer. The diet of the Jumbo Squid consists of small fish, crustaceans, cephalopods, and copepods. Their current population status is not

The Humboldt Squid has an overall length between 4.9’-8.2’ (1.5-2.5 m), mantle length of 29.5”-78.7” (75-200 cm), and weight of 99-110 lb (45-50 kg). The typical lifespan of the Humboldt Squid is between 1-2 years.

Series of elevation illustrations of the Humboldt Squid
The Humboldt Squid (Dosidicus gigas) also known as the Jumbo Squid is a cephalopod named after its large size. Humboldt Squids have also been nicknamed the ‘red devil’ due to their aggressive nature and their ability to light themselves through bioluminescence flashes of red and white.

The Humboldt Squid has an overall length between 4.9’-8.2’ (1.5-2.5 m), mantle length of 29.5”-78.7” (75-200 cm), and weight of 99-110 lb (45-50 kg). The typical lifespan of the Humboldt Squid is between 1-2 years.

Series of elevation illustrations of the Humboldt Squid
Humboldt Squid (Dosidicus gigas)
Height:
Width:
Length:
4.9’-8.2’ | 1.5-2.5 m
Depth:
Weight:
99-110 lb | 45-50 kg
Area:

Mantle Length: 29.5”-78.7” | 75-200 cm

Scientific Name
Dosidicus gigas
Lifespan
1-2 years

Drawings include:

Humboldt Squid side elevation, front

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Telescope Octopus (Amphitretus pelagicus)
Dimensioned comparison drawing of the Telescope Octopus compared to other cephalopods

The Telescope Octopus (Amphitretus palgicus) is a cephalopod that has a translucent skin with gelatinous consistency. Telescope Octopuses are related to the Glass Octopus and have a similar appearance to them. The eyes of the Telescope Octopus are elongated, pop out of their head, and look like telescope. It is the only octopus with tubular eyes. Telescope Octopuses are found in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They are found in water depths of between 500-6,500 ft (150m - 2 km). Not much is known about the eating habits of the Telescope Octopus. They currently not in danger of extinction.

The Telescope Octopus has an overall length between 4.3”-10.6” (11-27 cm) and mantle length of 1.6”-3.9” (4-10 cm).

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Telescope Octopus
The Telescope Octopus (Amphitretus palgicus) is a cephalopod that has a translucent skin with gelatinous consistency. Telescope Octopuses are related to the Glass Octopus and have a similar appearance to them. The eyes of the Telescope Octopus are elongated, pop out of their head like telescopes.

The Telescope Octopus has an overall length between 4.3”-10.6” (11-27 cm) and mantle length of 1.6”-3.9” (4-10 cm).

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Telescope Octopus
Telescope Octopus (Amphitretus pelagicus)
Height:
Width:
Length:
4.3”-10.6” | 11-27 cm
Depth:
Weight:
Area:

Mantle Length: 1.6”-3.9” | 4-10 cm

Scientific Name
Amphitretus pelagicus
Lifespan

Drawings include:

Telescope Octopus side elevation, front

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Giant African Snail (Achatina achatina)
Scale illustration of an average Giant African Snail with compared to other gastropods

The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is a large land snail that has been a significant cause in pest issues around the world. As a voracious feeder, the Giant African Snail eats a wide range of plant material, and it is a vector for plant pathogens which causes severe damage to agricultural crops and native plants. The species thrives in many types of habitats with mild climates. Physically, they have a conical shell, and the coloration is highly variable and dependent on diet. Usually it is brown, and the shell is banded.

Giant African Snails have an overall length between 7.87”-11.81” (20-30 cm), width from 3.54”-4.72” (9-12 cm), overall height of 3.46”-5.12” (8.8-13 cm), and weight in the range of .44-1 lb (.2-.45 kg). Their shell length is commonly between 5.9”-8” (15-20.3 cm) with a height of 2.75”-3.94” (7-10 cm). The typical lifespan of the Giant African Snail is 5-9 years.

Pair of elevation illustrations of the Giant African Snail seen from the side, front, and top
The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is a large land snail that has been a significant cause in pest issues around the world. As a voracious feeder, the Giant African Snail eats a wide range of plant material, and it is a vector for plant pathogens which causes severe damage to agriculture.

Giant African Snails have an overall length between 7.87”-11.81” (20-30 cm), width from 3.54”-4.72” (9-12 cm), overall height of 3.46”-5.12” (8.8-13 cm), and weight in the range of .44-1 lb (.2-.45 kg). Their shell length is commonly between 5.9”-8” (15-20.3 cm) with a height of 2.75”-3.94” (7-10 cm). The typical lifespan of the Giant African Snail is 5-9 years.

Pair of elevation illustrations of the Giant African Snail seen from the side, front, and top
Giant African Snail (Achatina achatina)
Height:
3.46”-5.12” | 8.8-13 cm
Width:
3.54”-4.72” | 9-12 cm
Length:
7.87”-11.81” | 20-30 cm (Overall)
Depth:
Weight:
.44-1 lb | .2-.45 kg
Area:

Shell Height: 2.75”-3.94” | 7-10 cm

Shell Length: 5.9”-8” | 15-20.3 cm

Scientific Name
Achatina achatina
Lifespan
5-9 years

Drawings include:

Giant African Snail side elevation, front, top

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