Odd-Toed Ungulates | Perissodactyla

Odd-toed ungulates, in comparison to even-toed ungulates, bear the majority of weight on one toe only; their third toe. The other difference between the two ungulate families, is that odd-toed ungulates digest cellulose in their intestines, not their stomach. The odd-toed ungulate family is rather small, consisting of horses, donkeys, tapirs, and rhinoceros. Despite the size of this family, odd-toed ungulates have an extensive reach and are present across the globe, due to establishment of feral populations. Two of the odd-toed ungulate species have been domesticated; horses and donkeys. All odd-toed ungulates are either large to very large, with the smallest still weighing in at 200 kg or 440 lbs.

Which animals are odd-toed ungulates?

There are about 17 species of odd-toed ungulates. Animals that are odd-toed ungulates include the javan rhinoceros, mountain tapir, mountain zebra, onager, kiang, mule, donkey, and horse. Other animals include the Sumatran rhinoceros, African wild ass, and Malayan tapir.

What are the shared characteristics of odd-toed ungulates?

Shared characteristics of odd-toed ungulates include them being herbivores and each having 1 or 3 hoofed toes on each hindfoot. They also have a long upper jaw and a reduced ulna and fibula bones simplifying both the wrist and ankle joint. They don’t have a clavicle bone making running more efficient.

What are the differences between odd and even-toed ungulates?

The most notable difference between even and odd-toed ungulates is the number of toes they have. Odd-toed ungulates have an odd number of toes, while even-toed ungulates have an even number of toes (2 or 4). Odd-toed ungulates are able to digest plant matter in their intestines, while even-toed ungulates digest their meals in one or more stomach chambers.

Odd-Toed Ungulates Guides
Browse through our curated Odd-Toed Ungulates Guides for additional categorizations, tips, details, variations, styles, and histories of Odd-Toed Ungulates. Guides provide additional insights into the unique properties and shared relationships between elements.

Odd-Toed Ungulates

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55.1”-65” | 140-165 cm
78.7”-92.5” | 200-235 cm
507-606 lb | 230-275 kg
25-40 years
African Wild Ass
165.000
235.000
275.000
40.00
4200
3D
African Wild Ass
14-16 hands (56”-64” | 142-163 cm)
900-1000 lb | 408-454 kg
20 years (Typical)
Akhal-Teke
163.000
454.000
20.00
6900
3D
Akhal-Teke
14.75-15.5 hands (59”-62” | 150-158 cm)
900-1200 lb | 408-544 kg
25 years (Typical)
Andalusian Horse
158.000
544.000
25.00
19000
3D
Andalusian Horse
14-16 hands (56”-64” | 142-163 cm)
950-1250 lb | 431-567 kg
30 years (Typical)
Appaloosa Horse
163.000
567.000
30.00
17000
3D
Appaloosa Horse
14.25-15.25 hands (57”-61” | 145-155 cm)
800-1000 lb | 363-454 kg
25-30 years (Typical)
Arabian Horse
155.000
454.000
30.00
39000
3D
Arabian Horse
39.4”-51.2” | 100-130 cm
16.5”-22.4” | 42-57 cm
70.9”-98.4” | 180-250 cm
331-661 lb | 150-300 kg
20-30 years
Baird's Tapir
130.000
57.000
250.000
300.000
30.00
750
3D
Baird's Tapir
4.9’-6.2’ | 1.5-1.9 m
3’-3.6’ | .9-1.1 m
9.8’-12.3’ | 3-3.75 m
1,764-3,086 lb | 800-1,400 kg
30-50 years
Black Rhinoceros
190.000
110.000
375.000
1400.000
50.00
66000
3D
Black Rhinoceros
39.4”-47.2” | 100-120 cm
15.75”-18.9” | 40-48 cm
70.9”-87” | 180-221 cm
397-705 lb | 180-320 kg
25-40 years
Brazilian Tapir
120.000
48.000
221.000
320.000
40.00
4700
3D
Brazilian Tapir
16-18 hands (64”-72” | 162-183 cm)
1800-2200 lb | 816-998 kg
20-25 years (Typical)
Clydesdale Horse
183.000
998.000
25.00
24000
3D
Clydesdale Horse
Donkey
119000
43”-57” | 109-145 cm
57”-76” | 145-193 cm
400-500 lb | 180-225 kg
25-40 years
Donkey
145.000
193.000
225.000
25.00
119000
3D
Donkey
14.5-17 hands (58”-68” | 147-173 cm)
1200-1400 lb | 544-635 kg
16 years (Typical)
Friesian Horse
173.000
635.000
16.00
38000
3D
Friesian Horse
13.5-15 hands (54”-60” | 137-152 cm)
800-1300 lb | 363-590 kg
25-30 years (Typical)
Haflinger Horse
152.000
590.000
30.00
5100
3D
Haflinger Horse
Hinny
36000
41.3”-57” | 105-145 cm
53.1”-72.8” | 135-185 cm
300-800 lb | 136-363 kg
30-40 years
Hinny
145.000
185.000
363.000
40.00
36000
3D
Hinny
5.6’-6.7’ | 1.7-2.05 m
3.6’-4.1’ | 1.1-1.25 m
10.8’-12.5’ | 3.3-3.8 m
3,527-4,850 lb | 1,600-2,200 kg
35-45 years
Indian Rhinoceros
205.000
125.000
380.000
2200.000
45.00
23300
3D
Indian Rhinoceros
45.3”-51.2” | 115-130 cm
55.1”-63.8” | 140-162 cm
441-573 lb | 200-260 kg
20-40 years
Indian Wild Ass
130.000
162.000
260.000
40.00
5080
3D
Indian Wild Ass
4.9’-5.6’ | 1.5-1.7 m
3’-3.3’ | .9-1 m
9.8’-11.2’ | 3-3.4 m
3,307-4,409 lb | 1,500-2,000 kg
30-45 years
Javan Rhinoceros
170.000
100.000
340.000
2000.000
45.00
29700
3D
Javan Rhinoceros
18.9”-29.1” | 48-74 cm
9.8”-15” | 25-38 cm
32.7”-51.2” | 83-130 cm
220-243 lb | 100-110 kg
25-35 years
Kabomani Tapir
74.000
38.000
130.000
110.000
35.00
280
3D
Kabomani Tapir
Kiang
11050
56.3”-61” | 143-155 cm
74.8”-86.6” | 190-220 cm
551-882 lb | 250-400 kg
20-30 years
Kiang
155.000
220.000
400.000
30.00
11050
3D
Kiang
40.2”-51.2” | 102-130 cm
19.3”-24.4” | 49-62 cm
72.8”-94.5” | 185-240 cm
551-882 lb | 250-400 kg
25-37 years
Malayan Tapir
130.000
62.000
240.000
400.000
37.00
13200
3D
Malayan Tapir
8.5-9.5 hands (34”-38” | 86-97 cm)
150-350 lb | 68-159 kg
25-35 years (Typical)
Miniature Horse
97.000
159.000
35.00
16000
3D
Miniature Horse
41.3”-55.1” | 105-140 cm
55.1”-70.9” | 140-180 cm
441-573 lb | 200-260 kg
15-40 years
Mongolian Wild Ass
140.000
180.000
260.000
40.00
3180
3D
Mongolian Wild Ass
14-15.25 hands (56”-61” | 142-155 cm)
900-1100 lb | 408-499 kg
30 years (Typical)
Morgan Horse
155.000
499.000
30.00
15000
3D
Morgan Horse
35.4”-44.5” | 90-113 cm
18.9”-21.7” | 48-55 cm
70.9”-78.7” | 180-200 cm
300-551 lb | 136-250 kg
28-30 years
Mountain Tapir
113.000
55.000
200.000
250.000
30.00
2900
3D
Mountain Tapir
Mule
309000
63”-78.7” | 160-200 cm
70.9”-86.6” | 180-220 cm
820-1,000 lb | 372-454 kg
30-40 years
Mule
200.000
220.000
454.000
40.00
309000
3D
Mule
14.5-16 hands (58”-64” | 147-163 cm)
1000-1200 lb | 454-544 kg
31 years (Typical)
Paint Horse
163.000
544.000
31.00
16000
3D
Paint Horse
56.3”-63” | 143-160 cm
66.9”-75.6” | 170-192 cm
441-573 lb | 200-260 kg
20-40 years
Persian Onager
160.000
192.000
260.000
40.00
1000
3D
Persian Onager
51"-75" | 130-191 cm
64"-96" | 163-244 cm
440-990 lb | 200-450 kg
20-30 years
Plains Zebra
191.000
244.000
450.000
30.00
128000
3D
Plains Zebra
51.2”-61” | 130-155 cm
63”-74.8” | 160-190 cm
551-794 lb | 250-360 kg
20-25 years
Przewalski's Horse
155.000
190.000
360.000
25.00
310
3D
Przewalski's Horse
Quagga
102300
53.1”-57” | 135-145 cm
65”-70.9” | 165-180 cm
551-661 lb | 250-300 kg
20-40 years
Quagga
145.000
180.000
300.000
40.00
102300
3D
Quagga
14-16 hands (56”-64” | 142-163 cm)
900-1250 lb | 408-567 kg
25-35 years (Typical)
Quarter Horse
163.000
567.000
35.00
26000
3D
Quarter Horse
7-11 hands (28”-44” | 71-112 cm)
400-450 lb | 181-204 kg
30 years (Typical)
Shetland Pony
112.000
204.000
30.00
21000
3D
Shetland Pony
16-19 hands (64”-76” | 163-193 cm)
1975-2425 lb | 900–1100 kg
24-28 years (Typical)
Shire Horse
193.000
1100.000
28.00
26000
3D
Shire Horse
4.4’-5.4’ | 1.35-1.65 m
2.5’-3.1’ | .75-.95 m
7.9’-9.8’ | 2.4-3 m
1,102-2,094 lb | 500-950 kg
30-35 years
Sumatran Rhinoceros
165.000
95.000
300.000
950.000
35.00
18300
3D
Sumatran Rhinoceros
Tarpan
27100
54.3”-59.8” | 138-152 cm
70.9”-78.7” | 180-200 cm
661-882 lb | 300-400 kg
25-30 years
Tarpan
152.000
200.000
400.000
30.00
27100
3D
Tarpan
15-17 hands (60”-68” | 152-173 cm)
900-1150 lb | 408-522 kg
25-30 years (Typical)
Thoroughbred
173.000
522.000
30.00
7500
3D
Thoroughbred
5.7’-7.1’ | 1.75-2.15 m
3.4’-4.3’ | 1.05-1.32 m
11.2’-13.8’ | 3.4-4.2 m
3,968-5,512 lb | 1,800-2,500 kg
35-50 years
White Rhinoceros
215.000
132.000
420.000
2500.000
50.00
133500
3D
White Rhinoceros
Zonkey
40000
45.3”-65” | 115-165 cm
53.1”-76.8” | 135-195 cm
500-700 lb | 227-318 kg
15-25 years
Zonkey
165.000
195.000
318.000
25.00
40000
3D
Zonkey
Zony
15000
46.5”-53.1” | 118-135 cm
55.1”-66.9” | 140-170 cm
500-700 lb | 227-318 kg
15-25 years
Zony
135.000
170.000
318.000
25.00
15000
3D
Zony
Zorse
39000
57”-72.8” | 145-185 cm
76.8”-98.4” | 195-250 cm
507-1,000 lb | 230-454 kg
15-30 years
Zorse
185.000
250.000
454.000
30.00
39000
3D
Zorse
Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii)
Comparison illustration of the size of a Przewalski's Horse to a typical person

The Prezwalski’s Horse (Equus prezwalskii) also referred to ask the Mongolian Wild Horse, is a rare horse that was at one point extinct. They are small with a heavy built and sand colored coat. The Prezwalski’s Horse is native to Europe and Asia. They became extinct due to man-made changes to their environment and are the only wild horses left in the world. They feed by grazing on grass and leaves from trees. They also need to consume large amounts of water. The Prezwalski’s Horse has a lifespan of up to 36 years and is considered to be in danger of extinction.

Przewalski's Horses have a shoulder height between 48”–56” (122-142 cm), overall standing height of 51.2”-61” (130-155 cm), and body length of 63”-74.8” (160-190 cm). The weight of a Przewalski's Horse is between 551-794 lb (250-360 kg). Przewalski's Horses have a typical lifespan of 20-25 years.

Series of side elevation illustrations of the Przewalski's Horse
The Prezwalski’s Horse (Equus prezwalskii) also referred to ask the Mongolian Wild Horse, is a rare horse that was at one point extinct. They are small with a heavy built and sand colored coat. The Prezwalski’s Horse is native to Europe and Asia. They became extinct due to man-made changes.

Przewalski's Horses have a shoulder height between 48”–56” (122-142 cm), overall standing height of 51.2”-61” (130-155 cm), and body length of 63”-74.8” (160-190 cm). The weight of a Przewalski's Horse is between 551-794 lb (250-360 kg). Przewalski's Horses have a typical lifespan of 20-25 years.

Series of side elevation illustrations of the Przewalski's Horse
Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii)
Height:
51.2”-61” | 130-155 cm
Width:
Length:
63”-74.8” | 160-190 cm
Depth:
Withers Height
48”–56” | 122-142 cm
Weight:
551-794 lb | 250-360 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Equus ferus przewalskii
Lifespan
20-25 years

Drawings include:

Przewalski's Horse side elevation (assorted), front, back

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Hinny (Equus caballus × Equus asinus)
Comparison illustration of the size of a Hinny to a typical person

The Hinny (Equus caballus x Equus asinus) is the offspring of the male horse and the female donkey. They are smaller, have shorter ears, and are stronger than the mule. They can have the strength and size of a horse. Hinnies are often ranch animals in Brazil, Colombia, and Portugal and are often confused for a mule. They are less popular than the mule. A hinny has typically quieter and moves slower than a mule. They are herbivores and typically eat plants or hay. They have a lifespan of between 35 to 40 years and are sterile like the mule.

Hinnies have a shoulder height between 36”–48” (91-122 cm), overall standing height of 41.3”-57” (105-145 cm), and body length of 53.1”-72.8” (135-185 cm). The weight of a Hinny is between 300-800 lb (136-363 kg). Hinnies have a typical lifespan of 30-40 years.

Series of dimensioned side elevation illustrations of the Hinny
The Hinny (Equus caballus x Equus asinus) is the offspring of the male horse and the female donkey. They are smaller, have shorter ears, and are stronger than the mule. They can have the strength and size of a horse. Hinnies are often ranch animals in Brazil, Colombia, and Portugal.

Hinnies have a shoulder height between 36”–48” (91-122 cm), overall standing height of 41.3”-57” (105-145 cm), and body length of 53.1”-72.8” (135-185 cm). The weight of a Hinny is between 300-800 lb (136-363 kg). Hinnies have a typical lifespan of 30-40 years.

Series of dimensioned side elevation illustrations of the Hinny
Hinny (Equus caballus × Equus asinus)
Height:
41.3”-57” | 105-145 cm
Width:
Length:
53.1”-72.8” | 135-185 cm
Depth:
Withers Height
36”–48” | 91-122 cm
Weight:
300-800 lb | 136-363 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Equus caballus × Equus asinus
Lifespan
30-40 years

Drawings include:

Hinny side elevation (assorted), front, back

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Shetland Pony
Comparison illustration of the size of a Shetland Pony to a typical person

The Shetland Pony is a Scottish pony breed from the northern Scotland Shetland Islands. Shetland Ponies can be almost any color, like skewbald and pinto, but they are mostly black, chestnut, bay, brown, palomino, dun, roan, and silver. They have a heavy coating and short legs and are regarded as very smart. Their size is strong and used for riding, driving, and packaging purposes. Shetland Ponies are sweet, well-tempered, and by definition very knowledgeable. They make nice children's ponies, and often they are considered to have a "brave" heart.

Shetland Ponies have a shoulder height of 7-11 hands (28”-44” | 71-112 cm), an overall weight in the range of 400-450 lb (181-204 kg) and a typical lifespan of 30 years. Shetland Ponies have coat colors that include bay, black, brown, buckskin, champagne, chestnut, cream, dun, gray, palomino, and various types of roan.

Series of side elevation illustrations of the Shetland Pony
The Shetland Pony is a Scottish pony breed from the northern Scotland Shetland Islands. Shetland Ponies can be almost any color, like skewbald and pinto, but they are mostly black, chestnut, bay, brown, palomino, dun, roan, and silver. They have a heavy coating, short legs and are regarded as smart.

Shetland Ponies have a shoulder height of 7-11 hands (28”-44” | 71-112 cm), an overall weight in the range of 400-450 lb (181-204 kg) and a typical lifespan of 30 years. Shetland Ponies have coat colors that include bay, black, brown, buckskin, champagne, chestnut, cream, dun, gray, palomino, and various types of roan.

Series of side elevation illustrations of the Shetland Pony
Shetland Pony
Height:
7-11 hands (28”-44” | 71-112 cm)
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
400-450 lb | 181-204 kg
Area:
Coat Colors
Bay, black, brown, buckskin, champagne, chestnut, cream, dun, gray, palomino, roan
Scientific Name
Lifespan
30 years (Typical)

Drawings include:

Shetland Pony side elevation (standing), front (standing), side (running)

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Shire Horse
Scale illustration of an average Shire Horse with dimensions for height and length compared to a human

The Shire Horse, Equus Caballus, is a British breed of the draft horse, a horse used to draw or haul objects. This horse breed is typically black, bay, or grey. The Shire Horse is tall and this breed has held the world record various times for the largest horse and tallest horse.

The Shire Horse is intentionally used for farm work as they have a great capacity for weight-pulling. The Shire Horse is known for its easy-going temperament, eagerness to please, and has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years. This breed of horses is considered at risk of extinction.

Shire Horses have a shoulder height of 16-19 hands (64”-76” | 163-193 cm), an overall weight in the range of 1975-2425 lb (900–1100 kg) and a typical lifespan of 24-28 years. Shire Horses have coat colors of black, bay, brown, grey.

Collection of scaled drawings of Shire Horse in various poses
The Shire Horse, Equus Caballus, is a British breed of the draft horse, a horse used to draw or haul objects. This horse breed is typically black, bay, or grey. The Shire Horse is tall and this breed has held the world record various times for the largest horse and tallest horse.

Shire Horses have a shoulder height of 16-19 hands (64”-76” | 163-193 cm), an overall weight in the range of 1975-2425 lb (900–1100 kg) and a typical lifespan of 24-28 years. Shire Horses have coat colors of black, bay, brown, grey.

Collection of scaled drawings of Shire Horse in various poses
Shire Horse
Height:
16-19 hands (64”-76” | 163-193 cm)
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
1975-2425 lb | 900–1100 kg
Area:
Coat Colors
Black, bay, brown, grey
Scientific Name
Lifespan
24-28 years (Typical)

Drawings include:
Shire Horse side elevation (standing), front (standing), side (running)

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American Paint Horse
Scale illustration of an average American Paint Horse with dimensions for height and length compared to a human

The American Paint Horse is a horse breeding that combines the confirmative characteristics of a western stocking horse with a pinto pattern of colors of brown and white. Spots can have any shape or scale-like the Appaloosa Horse and can be found on part of the Paint Horse.

Thanks to its bright coloring, pleasant disposition, and flexibility, the paint horse is very popular. In fact, in some 40 countries around the world, the American Paint Horse Association has around 100,000 members. The Paint Horse is ideal for riders with all levels of experience. They compete as training horses and strong competition horses in different equestrian activities.

American Paint Horses have a shoulder height of 14.5-16 hands (58”-64” | 147-163 cm), an overall weight in the range of 1000-1200 lb (454-544 kg) and a typical lifespan of 31 years. American Paint Horses have a range of coat colors and patterns including blanket, few spot, flecked, leopard, mottled, overo, pintaloosa, sabino overo, tobiano, tovero, and varnish.

Collection of scaled drawings of the American Paint Horse in various poses
The American Paint Horse is a horse breeding that combines the confirmative characteristics of a western stocking horse with a pinto pattern of colors of brown and white. Spots can have any shape or scale-like the Appaloosa Horse and can be found on part of the Paint Horse.

American Paint Horses have a shoulder height of 14.5-16 hands (58”-64” | 147-163 cm), an overall weight in the range of 1000-1200 lb (454-544 kg) and a typical lifespan of 31 years. American Paint Horses have a range of coat colors and patterns including blanket, few spot, flecked, leopard, mottled, overo, pintaloosa, sabino overo, tobiano, tovero, and varnish.

Collection of scaled drawings of the American Paint Horse in various poses
American Paint Horse
Height:
14.5-16 hands (58”-64” | 147-163 cm)
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
1000-1200 lb | 454-544 kg
Area:
Coat Colors
Blanket, few spot, flecked, leopard, mottled, overo, pintaloosa, sabino overo, tobiano, tovero, varnish
Scientific Name
Lifespan
31 years (Typical)

Drawings include:

American Paint Horse side elevation (standing), front (standing), side (running)

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