Extinct | Prehistoric Animals

The earliest Prehistoric animals to live were jawless, spineless creatures that roamed the oceans about 540 million years ago. It wasn’t until the Devonian period, 400 million years ago, when the prehistoric creatures grew legs and left the ocean, these are the prehistoric ancestors to all vertebrate creatures on earth today. Once on land, the prehistoric creatures underwent a bunch of different adaptations for running, crawling, flying, and jumping; it was then when the rise of the dinosaurs took place, in the Triassic period about 230 million years ago. Even though the dinosaurs ruled, many small, rodent-like mammals were alive and these small mammals, along with some birds, amphibians, and reptiles survived the mass extinction that wiped out the dinosaurs. Although 90% of the species that have lived on Earth throughout its existence are extinct, most of the creatures that survived this first mass extinction still exist today.

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Cave Bear
Comparison illustration of the size of a Cave Bear to an average human

The Cave Bear (Ursus spelaeus) was a bear species that lived in the Pleistocene region of Europe and Asia and died in the Last Glacial Maximums about 24,000 years ago. The Cave Bear had a very wide and dome-skull with a steep forehead. Its sturdy body had long thighs, large frame, and turning paws, which made it the ancestor to the Brown Bear in its skeletal form. The size of Cave Bears was like those of the largest modern bears.

Male Cave Bears had a shoulder height between 5’-5’7” (1.52-1.7 m) and a weight in the range of 750-1300 lb (340-590 kg). The shoulder heights of females was between 4’7”-5’2” (1.4-1.57 m) with weights from 500-550 lb (227-250 kg). The Cave Bear had an overall body length of roughly 8’8”-11’6” (2.7-3.5 m) and giant upright standing height of 10’-11’6” (3.05-3.5 m).

Series of side elevation illustrations of the Cave Bear
The Cave Bear (Ursus spelaeus) was a bear species that lived in the Pleistocene region of Europe and Asia and died in the Last Glacial Maximums about 24,000 years ago. The Cave Bear had a very wide and dome-skull with a steep forehead. Its sturdy body had long thighs, large frame, and turning paws.

Male Cave Bears had a shoulder height between 5’-5’7” (1.52-1.7 m) and a weight in the range of 750-1300 lb (340-590 kg). The shoulder heights of females was between 4’7”-5’2” (1.4-1.57 m) with weights from 500-550 lb (227-250 kg). The Cave Bear had an overall body length of roughly 8’8”-11’6” (2.7-3.5 m) and giant upright standing height of 10’-11’6” (3.05-3.5 m).

Series of side elevation illustrations of the Cave Bear
Cave Bear
Height:
4’7”-5’7” | 1.4-1.7 m
Width:
Length:
8’8”-11’6” | 2.7-3.5 m
Depth:
Standing Height
10’-11’6” | 3.05-3.5 m
Weight:
500-1300 lb | 227-590 kg
Area:

Males:

Height (Shoulder): 5’-5’7” | 1.52-1.7 m

Length: 9’10”-11’6” | 3-3.5 m

Weight: 750-1300 lb | 340-590 kg



Females:

Height (Shoulder): 4’7”-5’2” | 1.4-1.57 m

Length: 8’8”-10’6” | 2.7-3.2 m

Weight: 500-550 lb | 227-250 kg

Scientific Name
Ursus spelaeus
Lifespan

Drawings include:

Cave Bear side elevation (standing), front (standing upright)

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Spinosaurus
Comparison drawing of a Spinosaurus and a human with dimensions for height and length

Spinosaurus was a large carnivorous Cretaceous period (112-93.5 Mya) dinosaur characterized by its large thin back spikes. A giant predator on both land and water, similar to the present day crocodile, fossils prove that the Spinosaurus was as larger or larger than the Tyrannosaurus Rex.

Spinosaurus had a length of 49’-51’ (15-15.6 m), a head height of 16.5’ (5 m), an overall spine height of 21.5’ (6.5 m), and a width of 5.7' (1.7 m). Spinosaurus weighed 14,100-15,900 lb (6.4-7.2 metric tons).

Collection of drawings of a Spinosaurus from the front, back, side and plan views
Spinosaurus was a large carnivorous Cretaceous period dinosaur characterized by its large thin back spikes.

Spinosaurus had a length of 49’-51’ (15-15.6 m), a head height of 16.5’ (5 m), an overall spine height of 21.5’ (6.5 m), and a width of 5.7' (1.7 m). Spinosaurus weighed 14,100-15,900 lb (6.4-7.2 metric tons).

Collection of drawings of a Spinosaurus from the front, back, side and plan views
Spinosaurus
Height:
21.5’ | 6.5 m
Width:
5.7’ | 1.7 m
Length:
49’-51’ | 15-15.6 m
Depth:
Weight:
14,100-15,900 lb | 6.4-7.2 metric tons
Area:

Height (Head): 16.5’ | 5 m

Period: Cretaceous (112-93.5 million years ago)
Scientific Name: Spinosaurus

Scientific Name

Drawings include:
Spinosaurus side elevation, front, back, plan

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Tyrannosaurus | T-Rex
Tyrannosaurus | T-Rex size comparison to a human with dimensions for overall height and length

Tyrannosaurus Rex (T-Rex) was one of the largest predatory dinosaurs that ever existed. Living during the Cretaceous period (68-66 Mya) in the forested river valleys of today’s western North America, Tyrannosaurus is a carnivore popularly known for its large 5’ | 1.5 m skull, ferocious serrated teeth, small useless arms, strong tail, and powerful bipedal legs.

Tyrannosaurus Rex was 40’ (12.3 m) in length, with a height of 17’ (5.2 m), width of 6' (1.8 m), and hip height of 12’-13’ (3.7-4 m). Tyrannosaurus Rex weighed roughly 18,500-30,800 lb (8.4-14 metric tons).

Side, front, back and plan drawings of a Tyrannosaurus | T-Rex
Tyrannosaurus Rex (T-Rex) was one of the largest predatory dinosaurs that ever existed. Living during the Cretaceous period (68-66 Mya), Tyrannosaurus is a carnivore popularly known for its large skull, ferocious serrated teeth, small useless arms, strong tail, and powerful bipedal legs.

Tyrannosaurus Rex was 40’ (12.3 m) in length, with a height of 17’ (5.2 m), width of 6' (1.8 m), and hip height of 12’-13’ (3.7-4 m). Tyrannosaurus Rex weighed roughly 18,500-30,800 lb (8.4-14 metric tons).

Side, front, back and plan drawings of a Tyrannosaurus | T-Rex
Tyrannosaurus | T-Rex
Height:
17’ | 5.2 m
Width:
6’ | 1.8 m
Length:
40’ | 12.3 m
Depth:
Weight:
18,500-30,800 lb | 8.4-14 metric tons
Area:

Height (Hips): 12’-13’ | 3.7-4 m

Period: Cretaceous (68-66 million years ago)

Scientific Name
Tyrannosaurus

Drawings include:
Tyrannosaurus | T-Rex side elevation, front, back, plan

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Irish Elk | Giant Deer
Scaled drawing comparing the size of a Irish Elk (Giant Deer) to a typical person

The Irish Elk (Megaloceros giganteus) is an extinct breed of deer, with a massive body size and large-wide antlers ranging up to 13 feet (4 m). The Irish Elk is also known as the Irish Deer or Giant Deer and is most closely related to a modern-day Moose from body size to similar colors of fur.

Irish Elks ranged from the West of Ireland to the UK, to the South and North of Africa, and to East Siberia and China during the Pleistocene.

Irish Elk (Giant Deer) had standing shoulder heights between 6’6”-7’ (198-213 cm), head-to-body lengths in the range of 9’10”-10’6” (3-3.2 m), and overall weights of 1190-1543 lb (540-700 kg). The lifespan of an Irish Elk is thought to be roughly 10-15 years.

Collection of scaled drawings of the Irish Elk (Giant Deer)
The Irish Elk (Megaloceros giganteus) is an extinct breed of deer, with a massive body size and large-wide antlers ranging up to 13 feet (4 m). The Irish Elk is also known as the Irish Deer or Giant Deer and is most closely related to a modern-day Moose from body size to similar colors of fur.

Irish Elk (Giant Deer) had standing shoulder heights between 6’6”-7’ (198-213 cm), head-to-body lengths in the range of 9’10”-10’6” (3-3.2 m), and overall weights of 1190-1543 lb (540-700 kg). The lifespan of an Irish Elk is thought to be roughly 10-15 years.

Collection of scaled drawings of the Irish Elk (Giant Deer)
Irish Elk | Giant Deer
Height:
6’6”-7’ | 198-213 cm
Width:
Length:
9’10”-10’6” | 3-3.2 m
Depth:
Weight:
1190-1543 lb | 540-700 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Megaloceros giganteus
Lifespan
10-15 years

Drawings include:

Irish Elk (Giant Deer) side elevation (standing), front (standing)

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Brachiosaurus
Size comparison drawing of the Brachiosaurus to an average human with dimensions shown for length and height

Brachiosaurus was an extremely tall dinosaur that lived during the Late Jurassic period (154-153 Mya). Built for browsing for foliage high above the ground surface, Brachiosaurus is characterized by its long neck and body, small head, and larger forelimbs than hind limbs.

Brachiosaurus is characterized by its long neck and body resulting in a height of 31’-43’ (9.4-13 m), body length of 59’-69’ (18-21 m), and width of 8’-11’ (2.4-3.4 m). A typically Brachiosaurus weighed between 77,000-123,000 lb (35-56 metric tons).

Drawings of a Brachiosaurus from the side, front, back, and aerial
Brachiosaurus was an extremely tall dinosaur that lived during the Late Jurassic with features adapted for browsing for foliage high above the ground surface.

Brachiosaurus is characterized by its long neck and body resulting in a height of 31’-43’ (9.4-13 m), body length of 59’-69’ (18-21 m), and width of 8’-11’ (2.4-3.4 m). A typically Brachiosaurus weighed between 77,000-123,000 lb (35-56 metric tons).

Drawings of a Brachiosaurus from the side, front, back, and aerial
Brachiosaurus
Height:
31’-43’ | 9.4-13 m
Width:
8’-11’ | 2.4-3.4 m
Length:
59’-69’ | 18-21 m
Depth:
Weight:
77,000-123,000 lb | 35-56 metric tons
Area:

Period: Late Jurassic (154-153 million years ago)

Scientific Name
Brachiosaurus

Drawings include:
Brachiosaurus side elevation, front, back, plan

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