Odd-Toed Ungulates

Odd-toed ungulates, in comparison to even-toed ungulates, bear the majority of weight on one toe only; their third toe. The other difference between the two ungulate families, is that odd-toed ungulates digest cellulose in their intestines, not their stomach. The odd-toed ungulate family is rather small, consisting of horses, donkeys, tapirs, and rhinoceros. Despite the size of this family, odd-toed ungulates have an extensive reach and are present across the globe, due to establishment of feral populations. Two of the odd-toed ungulate species have been domesticated; horses and donkeys. All odd-toed ungulates are either large to very large, with the smallest still weighing in at 200 kg or 440 lbs.

Which animals are odd-toed ungulates?

There are about 17 species of odd-toed ungulates. Animals that are odd-toed ungulates include the javan rhinoceros, mountain tapir, mountain zebra, onager, kiang, mule, donkey, and horse. Other animals include the Sumatran rhinoceros, African wild ass, and Malayan tapir.

What are the shared characteristics of odd-toed ungulates?

Shared characteristics of odd-toed ungulates include them being herbivores and each having 1 or 3 hoofed toes on each hindfoot. They also have a long upper jaw and a reduced ulna and fibula bones simplifying both the wrist and ankle joint. They don’t have a clavicle bone making running more efficient.

What are the differences between odd and even-toed ungulates?

The most notable difference between even and odd-toed ungulates is the number of toes they have. Odd-toed ungulates have an odd number of toes, while even-toed ungulates have an even number of toes (2 or 4). Odd-toed ungulates are able to digest plant matter in their intestines, while even-toed ungulates digest their meals in one or more stomach chambers.

Odd-Toed Ungulates

Miniature Horse
8.5-9.5 hands (34”-38” | 86-97 cm)
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Shetland Pony
7-11 hands (28”-44” | 71-112 cm)
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Haflinger Horse
13.5-15 hands (54”-60” | 137-152 cm)
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Arabian Horse
14.25-15.25 hands (57”-61” | 145-155 cm)
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Morgan Horse
14-15.25 hands (56”-61” | 142-155 cm)
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Andalusian Horse
14.75-15.5 hands (59”-62” | 150-158 cm)
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Appaloosa Horse
14-16 hands (56”-64” | 142-163 cm)
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Paint Horse
14.5-16 hands (58”-64” | 147-163 cm)
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Quarter Horse
14-16 hands (56”-64” | 142-163 cm)
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Akhal-Teke
14-16 hands (56”-64” | 142-163 cm)
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Friesian Horse
14.5-17 hands (58”-68” | 147-173 cm)
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Thoroughbred
15-17 hands (60”-68” | 152-173 cm)
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Clydesdale Horse
16-18 hands (64”-72” | 162-183 cm)
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Zebra
51.0"-75.0" (4’3”-6’3”) | 1.3-1.9 m
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Shire Horse
16-19 hands (64”-76” | 163-193 cm)
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Rhinoceros
66.0"-81.0" (5’6"-6’9") | 1.7-2.1 m
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Shire Horse
Scale illustration of an average Shire Horse with dimensions for height and length compared to a human

Shire Horses have a shoulder height of 16-19 hands (64”-76” | 163-193 cm), an overall weight in the range of 1975-2425 lb (900–1100 kg) and a typical lifespan of 24-28 years. Shire Horses have coat colors of black, bay, brown, grey.

Collection of scaled drawings of Shire Horse in various poses

Shire Horses have a shoulder height of 16-19 hands (64”-76” | 163-193 cm), an overall weight in the range of 1975-2425 lb (900–1100 kg) and a typical lifespan of 24-28 years. Shire Horses have coat colors of black, bay, brown, grey.

Collection of scaled drawings of Shire Horse in various poses
Shire Horse
Height:
16-19 hands (64”-76” | 163-193 cm)
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
1975-2425 lb | 900–1100 kg
Area:
Coat Colors
Black, bay, brown, grey
Lifespan
24-28 years (Typical)

Drawings include:
Shire Horse side elevation (standing), front (standing), side (running)

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Clydesdale Horse
Dimensioned comparison drawing of the Clydesdale Horse compared to an average person

The Clydesdale Horse is a Scottish horse-drawn breed. This is known after its place of roots, the Clydesdale or the valley of the River Clyde, much of which is situated in the county of Lanarkshire. It is a large and strong animal, but not as heavy as it was in the past.

It is well-muscled and heavy, with an arched back, high withers, and a sloping head and with indistinguishable hooves and legs. It has historically been used for draught strength, both in agriculture and in road haulage. It is now primarily a carriage horse, so it can be ridden or guided in parades or processions.

Clydesdale Horses have a shoulder height of 16-18 hands (64”-72” | 162-183 cm), an overall weight in the range of 1800-2200 lb (816-998 kg) and a typical lifespan of 20-25 years. Clydesdale Horses have coat colors of bay with white blaze (common), black, chestnut, gray, pinto, and roan.

Set of standing side elevation drawings of the Clydesdale Horse
The Clydesdale Horse is a Scottish horse-drawn breed. This is known after its place of roots, the Clydesdale or the valley of the River Clyde, much of which is situated in the county of Lanarkshire. It is a large and strong animal, but not as heavy as it was in the past.

Clydesdale Horses have a shoulder height of 16-18 hands (64”-72” | 162-183 cm), an overall weight in the range of 1800-2200 lb (816-998 kg) and a typical lifespan of 20-25 years. Clydesdale Horses have coat colors of bay with white blaze (common), black, chestnut, gray, pinto, and roan.

Set of standing side elevation drawings of the Clydesdale Horse
Clydesdale Horse
Height:
16-18 hands (64”-72” | 162-183 cm)
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
1800-2200 lb | 816-998 kg
Area:
Coat Colors
Bay with white blaze (common), black, chestnut, gray, pinto, roan
Lifespan
20-25 years (Typical)

Drawings include:

Clydesdale Horse side elevation (standing), front (standing), side (running)

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Shetland Pony
Comparison illustration of the size of a Shetland Pony to a typical person

The Shetland Pony is a Scottish pony breed from the northern Scotland Shetland Islands. Shetland Ponies can be almost any color, like skewbald and pinto, but they are mostly black, chestnut, bay, brown, palomino, dun, roan, and silver. They have a heavy coating and short legs and are regarded as very smart. Their size is strong and used for riding, driving, and packaging purposes. Shetland Ponies are sweet, well-tempered, and by definition very knowledgeable. They make nice children's ponies, and often they are considered to have a "brave" heart.

Shetland Ponies have a shoulder height of 7-11 hands (28”-44” | 71-112 cm), an overall weight in the range of 400-450 lb (181-204 kg) and a typical lifespan of 30 years. Shetland Ponies have coat colors that include bay, black, brown, buckskin, champagne, chestnut, cream, dun, gray, palomino, and various types of roan.

Series of side elevation illustrations of the Shetland Pony
The Shetland Pony is a Scottish pony breed from the northern Scotland Shetland Islands. Shetland Ponies can be almost any color, like skewbald and pinto, but they are mostly black, chestnut, bay, brown, palomino, dun, roan, and silver. They have a heavy coating, short legs and are regarded as smart.

Shetland Ponies have a shoulder height of 7-11 hands (28”-44” | 71-112 cm), an overall weight in the range of 400-450 lb (181-204 kg) and a typical lifespan of 30 years. Shetland Ponies have coat colors that include bay, black, brown, buckskin, champagne, chestnut, cream, dun, gray, palomino, and various types of roan.

Series of side elevation illustrations of the Shetland Pony
Shetland Pony
Height:
7-11 hands (28”-44” | 71-112 cm)
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
400-450 lb | 181-204 kg
Area:
Coat Colors
Bay, black, brown, buckskin, champagne, chestnut, cream, dun, gray, palomino, roan
Lifespan
30 years (Typical)

Drawings include:

Shetland Pony side elevation (standing), front (standing), side (running)

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Donkey
Dimensioned drawing of an average donkey with measurements for height and length compared to a human farmer for scale

Donkeys, also known as asses or burros, are members of the horse family (Equidae) that are distinguished from horses by their stockier stature and floppy ears. With variations that include wild, feral, and domestic, donkeys are herd animals found around the world that are most commonly kept as beasts of burden that have assisted in the transportation of goods for thousands of years. On farms, donkeys are often bred as pets and for producing milk but they have also been found to act as guardians that help protect the other livestock. Male donkeys are called jacks, while female donkeys are known as jennies or jennets.

The average Donkey has an overall height of 43.0”-57.0” (109-145 cm), withers height of 36.0”-48.0” (92-123 cm), and body length of 57.0”-76.0” (145-193 cm). A typical Donkey weighs between 400-500 lb (180-225 kg) and has a lifespan of roughly 25-40 years.

Illustrations of a donkey as viewed from the side, front, and laying down
Donkeys, also known as asses or burros, are members of the horse family (Equidae) that are distinguished from horses by their stockier stature and floppy ears.

The average Donkey has an overall height of 43.0”-57.0” (109-145 cm), withers height of 36.0”-48.0” (92-123 cm), and body length of 57.0”-76.0” (145-193 cm). A typical Donkey weighs between 400-500 lb (180-225 kg) and has a lifespan of roughly 25-40 years.

Illustrations of a donkey as viewed from the side, front, and laying down
Donkey
Height:
43.0”-57.0” | 109-145 cm
Width:
Length:
57.0”-76.0” | 145-193 cm
Depth:
36.0”-48.0” | 92-123 cm
Weight:
400-500 lb | 180-225 kg
Area:

Uses: Milk, pack (transport), guardians

Equus asinus
Lifespan
25-40 years

Drawings include:
Donkey side elevation (standing), side (male farmer), front, side (laying down)

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Friesian Horse
Comparison illustration of the size of a Friesian Horse to a typical person

The Friesian Horse is a breed of horses from Friesland, the Netherlands. While the shape of the breed is like that of an easy draught, the Friesian horses are pleasant and sizable. The Friesian horse is most recognized for its black color, but often they are born in a chestnut color.

The Friesian breed has a high physical structure and a fine skeleton. Friesian Horses have long, arched necks and smooth, short-oaked heads, much like Spanish Horses. They have solid, bent, slim, muscular bodies with powerful, angled hindquarters and low-set tails. Their limbs are relatively short and strong. A Friesian horse has often a long, dense, wavy, sometimes wavy and feathering mane, a fine, silky fur on the lower legs.

Friesian Horses have a shoulder height of 14.5-17 hands (58”-68” | 147-173 cm), an overall weight in the range of 1200-1400 lb (544-635 kg) and a typical lifespan of 16 years. Friesian Horses have black coats.

Series of side elevation illustrations of the Friesian Horse
The Friesian Horse is a breed of horses from Friesland, the Netherlands. While the shape of the breed is like that of an easy draught, the Friesian horses are pleasant and sizable. The Friesian horse is most recognized for its black color, but often they are born in a chestnut color.

Friesian Horses have a shoulder height of 14.5-17 hands (58”-68” | 147-173 cm), an overall weight in the range of 1200-1400 lb (544-635 kg) and a typical lifespan of 16 years. Friesian Horses have black coats.

Series of side elevation illustrations of the Friesian Horse
Friesian Horse
Height:
14.5-17 hands (58”-68” | 147-173 cm)
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
1200-1400 lb | 544-635 kg
Area:
Coat Colors
Black
Lifespan
16 years (Typical)

Drawings include:

Friesian Horse side elevation (standing), front (standing), side (running)

Details & Downloads

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