Birds are a vertebrate class, like mammals, however they are a class adapted for flight that evolved alongside dinosaurs in the Jurassic period. Birds are distinguished by their feathers, toothless beaked jaws, laying of eggs, a high metabolic rate, four chambered heart, and a strong lightweight skeleton. Most of these characteristics were a result of years of evolution for birds to become the optimal flying machines they are today. Some of these evolutionary adaptations for birds include: forearms that evolved into wings, the shape of the wing developing for the most lift and glide (the shape which is the standard model for airplane wings), and the incubation of their young outside the womb to avoid excess weight while flying. A few species of birds, like the penguin and ostrich, have lost their ability to fly, but have retained their wings.

How long do birds typically live?

Birds typically live between 4 to 100 years depending on the species itself. Birds age differently than other animals as once they reach their adult plumage, they are almost impossible to age. It is believed that they accomplish this by the oxygen and protein process associated with their metabolism.

How do birds sleep?

Birds sleep by finding either a secluded branch or tree cavity to sleep on. Before sleeping they fluff their down feathers beneath their outer feathers and turn their head to face backward. Then they tuck their beak into their back feathers and close their eyes to sleep.

Why do birds migrate?

Birds may migrate for long distances, medium distances, short distances, or not at all depending on their needs. Birds typically migrate to go from an area of low resources to another area of high resources. They often look for areas with food or nesting locations. These needs may also vary by season as birds migrate from the north to the south once the winter season begins.

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Birds Guides
Browse through our curated Birds Guides for additional categorizations, tips, details, variations, styles, and histories of Birds. Guides provide additional insights into the unique properties and shared relationships between elements.
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18”-28” | 46-71 cm
8-13 lb | 3.6-6 kg
11-20 years
Adélie Penguin
71.000
6.000
20.00
2900
3D
Adélie Penguin
27”-30” | 68-76 cm
7-12 lb | 3.2-5.3 kg
15-20 years
Chinstrap Penguin
76.000
5.300
20.00
6900
3D
Chinstrap Penguin
43”-51” | 110-130 cm
49-99 lb | 22-45 kg
15-20 years
Emperor Penguin
130.000
45.000
20.00
44000
3D
Emperor Penguin
20”-35” | 51-90 cm
11-19 lb | 4.9-8.5 kg
15-20 years
Gentoo Penguin
90.000
8.500
20.00
9900
3D
Gentoo Penguin
28”-39” | 70-100 cm
21-40 lb | 9.3-18 kg
15-30 years
King Penguin
100.000
18.000
30.00
15000
3D
King Penguin
24”-27” | 61-69 cm
7-14 lb | 3.2-6.4 kg
15-20 years
Macaroni Penguin
69.000
6.400
20.00
15000
3D
Macaroni Penguin
Turkey
18000
48.0" (4’) | 122 cm
46.0" (3’10”) | 117 cm
17-30 lb | 7.7-13.6 kg
1.5-1.75 years (farm); 10 (wild)
Turkey
122.000
117.000
13.600
1.75
18000
3D
Turkey
Sparrows
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Scientific Name
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Turkey
Dimensioned drawing comparing a farm turkey to a human with average lengths and heights

Turkeys are a large game bird native to North America and can be identified by their fan-shaped tail feathers, bald heads and red wattle that hangs from their neck. Female turkeys are referred to as hens, while males are known as toms. Typically domesticated as a poultry food source, turkeys are traditionally famous for serving during festive occasions such as Thanksgiving and Christmas.

The typical Turkey has an overall height of 48.0" (122 cm) and body length of 46.0" (117 cm). An average Turkey weighs between 17-30 lb (7.7-13.6 kg) and has a typical lifespan of 1.5-1.75 years (farm); 10 (wild).

Multiple drawings of a turkey from the front and side showing walking, standing, and pointing
Turkeys are a large game bird native to North America and can be identified by their fan-shaped tail feathers, bald heads and red wattle that hangs from their neck. Turkeys average 4’ | 122 cm in height with weights that average 17 lbs | 7.7 kg in the wild.

The typical Turkey has an overall height of 48.0" (122 cm) and body length of 46.0" (117 cm). An average Turkey weighs between 17-30 lb (7.7-13.6 kg) and has a typical lifespan of 1.5-1.75 years (farm); 10 (wild).

Multiple drawings of a turkey from the front and side showing walking, standing, and pointing
Turkey
Height:
48.0" (4’) | 122 cm
Width:
Length:
46.0" (3’10”) | 117 cm
Depth:
Weight:
17-30 lb | 7.7-13.6 kg
Area:

Uses: Meat

Scientific Name
Meleagris gallopavo
Lifespan
1.5-1.75 years (farm); 10 (wild)

Drawings include:
Turkeys side elevation (walking), front, side (standing), side (pointing)

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Gentoo Penguin
Elevation drawing with dimensions of the Gentoo Penguin compared to the size of an average person

The Gentoo penguin, sometimes known as the Johnny penguin, is characterized by the large trumpeting call that it makes with its head thrown back. Other distinguishing factors include the wide white stripe that extends over the top of the penguins’ head, and its bright orange-red bill. Gentoo penguins have the most prominent tails of all penguin species. The species is most closely related to the Adélie penguin and the Chinstrap penguin. They are the third largest penguin species, and the fastest underwater swimmers of all penguin species, reaching speeds of 22 miles per hour.

The Gentoo Penguin has an average height range of 20”-35” (51-90 cm), weight of 11-19 lb (4.9-8.5 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Series of elevation drawings of the Gentoo Penguin in an assortment of postures from the front, back, and side views
The Gentoo penguin is characterized by the large trumpeting call that it makes with its head thrown back. Other distinguishing factors include the wide white stripe that extends over the top of the penguins’ head, its bright orange-red bill, and the most prominent tail of all penguin species.

The Gentoo Penguin has an average height range of 20”-35” (51-90 cm), weight of 11-19 lb (4.9-8.5 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Series of elevation drawings of the Gentoo Penguin in an assortment of postures from the front, back, and side views
Gentoo Penguin
Height:
20”-35” | 51-90 cm
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
11-19 lb | 4.9-8.5 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Pygoscelis papua
Lifespan
15-20 years

Drawings include:
Gentoo Penguin standing (side), looking (side), standing (back), walking (side), standing (front), standing (winter woman)

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Macaroni Penguin
Dimensioned size comparison illustration of a Macaroni Penguin compared to the height of an average standing woman

The Macaroni Penguin is one of the six species of crested penguin, closely related to the Royal Penguin.  The species can be found from the Sub Antarctic to the Antarctic Peninsula. Macaroni penguins consume more marine life annually than any other seabird species, with a diet that consists mostly of crustaceans, such as krill, and small fish. They are distinguished by their yellow crest and the sharp delineation of their white underparts to their black upperparts and face. Since the mid-1970s the macaroni penguin is classified as under a vulnerable conservation status.

The Macaroni Penguin has an average height range of 24”-27” (61-69 cm), weight of 7-14 lb (3.2-6.4 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Collection of illustrations of the Macaroni Penguin in a range of postures viewed from the front, back and side
The Macaroni Penguin is one of the six species of crested penguin, closely related to the Royal Penguin. Macaroni penguins consume more marine life annually than any other seabird species, with a diet that consists mostly of crustaceans, such as krill, and small fish.

The Macaroni Penguin has an average height range of 24”-27” (61-69 cm), weight of 7-14 lb (3.2-6.4 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Collection of illustrations of the Macaroni Penguin in a range of postures viewed from the front, back and side
Macaroni Penguin
Height:
24”-27” | 61-69 cm
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
7-14 lb | 3.2-6.4 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Eudyptes chrysolophus
Lifespan
15-20 years

Drawings include:
Macaroni Penguin standing (side), looking (side), standing (back), walking (side), standing (front), standing (winter woman)

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King Penguin
Dimensioned size comparison drawing of the King Penguin compared to the height of an average man

The King Penguin is the second largest penguin species; slightly smaller than the Emperor Penguin, the King Penguin is similar in appearance to that of the Emperor Penguin, but it can be distinguished by its straighter bill and sleeker body. King penguins breed on the Sub Antarctic islands on the northern regions of Antarctica, South Georgia, as well as other temperate islands; they are classified under least concern conservation status. The species’ diet consists of mostly laternfish, squid, and krill, and King Penguins can dive over 300 feet to catch their prey.

The King Penguin has an average height range of 28”-39” (70-100 cm), weight of 21-40 lb (9.3-18 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-30 years.

Series of drawings of King Penguins in various postures from walking to standing and looking
The King Penguin is the second largest penguin species; slightly smaller than the Emperor Penguin, the King Penguin is similar in appearance to that of the Emperor Penguin, but it can be distinguished by its straighter bill and sleeker body. King Penguins can dive over 300 feet to catch their prey.

The King Penguin has an average height range of 28”-39” (70-100 cm), weight of 21-40 lb (9.3-18 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-30 years.

Series of drawings of King Penguins in various postures from walking to standing and looking
King Penguin
Height:
28”-39” | 70-100 cm
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
21-40 lb | 9.3-18 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Aptenodytes patagonicus
Lifespan
15-30 years

Drawings include:
King Penguin standing (side), looking (side), standing (back), walking (side), standing (front), standing (winter man)

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