Birds are a vertebrate class, like mammals, however they are a class adapted for flight that evolved alongside dinosaurs in the Jurassic period. Birds are distinguished by their feathers, toothless beaked jaws, laying of eggs, a high metabolic rate, four chambered heart, and a strong lightweight skeleton. Most of these characteristics were a result of years of evolution for birds to become the optimal flying machines they are today.

Some of these evolutionary adaptations for birds include: forearms that evolved into wings, the shape of the wing developing for the most lift and glide (the shape which is the standard model for airplane wings), and the incubation of their young outside the womb to avoid excess weight while flying. A few species of birds, like the penguin and ostrich, have lost their ability to fly, but have retained their wings.

How long do birds typically live?

Birds typically live between 4 to 100 years depending on the species itself. Birds age differently than other animals as once they reach their adult plumage, they are almost impossible to age. It is believed that they accomplish this by the oxygen and protein process associated with their metabolism.

How do birds sleep?

Birds sleep by finding either a secluded branch or tree cavity to sleep on. Before sleeping they fluff their down feathers beneath their outer feathers and turn their head to face backward. Then they tuck their beak into their back feathers and close their eyes to sleep.

Why do birds migrate?

Birds may migrate for long distances, medium distances, short distances, or not at all depending on their needs. Birds typically migrate to go from an area of low resources to another area of high resources. They often look for areas with food or nesting locations. These needs may also vary by season as birds migrate from the north to the south once the winter season begins.

Birds Guides
Browse through our curated Birds Guides for additional categorizations, tips, details, variations, styles, and histories of Birds. Guides provide additional insights into the unique properties and shared relationships between elements.
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18”-28” | 46-71 cm
8-13 lb | 3.6-6 kg
11-20 years
Adélie Penguin
71.000
6.000
20.00
2900
GUIDE
3D
Adélie Penguin
24”-27” | 61-69 cm
7.5”-8.7” | 19-22 cm
4.4-8.8 lb | 2-4 kg
10-30 years
African Penguin
69.000
22.000
4.000
30.00
23350
GUIDE
3D
African Penguin
13.4”-17.7” | 34-45 cm
26.8”-29.9” | 68-76 cm (Wingspan)
15.75”-20.1” | 40-51 cm
.6-.93 lb | .27-.42 kg
9-15 years
American Avocet
45.000
76.000
51.000
0.420
15.00
2940
GUIDE
3D
American Avocet
47.2”-57” | 120-145 cm
51.2”-65” | 130-165 cm (Wingspan)
47.2”-57” | 120-145 cm
4.85-7.94 lb | 2.2-3.6 kg
20-50 years
American Flamingo
145.000
165.000
145.000
3.600
50.00
8100
GUIDE
3D
American Flamingo
13.4”-16.7” | 34-42.5 cm
47.2”-61” | 120-155 cm (Wingspan)
20.9”-26” | 53-66 cm
1.3-3.6 lb | .6-1.65 kg
20-32 years
American Herring Gull
42.500
155.000
66.000
1.650
32.00
190
GUIDE
3D
American Herring Gull
5.7”-8.1” | 14.5-20.5 cm
19.7”-24” | 50-61 cm (Wingspan)
8.7”-12.2” | 22-31 cm
.18-.36 lb | .08-.165 kg
5-11 years
American Kestrel
20.500
61.000
31.000
0.165
11.00
25500
GUIDE
3D
American Kestrel
9.8”-11” | 25-28 cm
31.9”-35” | 81-89 cm (Wingspan)
15.75”-17.3” | 40-44 cm
.88-1.54 lb | .4-.7 kg
10-17 years
American Oystercatcher
28.000
89.000
44.000
0.700
17.00
3100
GUIDE
3D
American Oystercatcher
5.5”-6.9” | 14-17.5 cm
12.2”-15.75” | 31-40 cm (Wingspan)
9.1”-11” | 23-28 cm
2.3-3 oz | 65-84 g
2-14 years
American Robin
17.500
40.000
28.000
0.084
14.00
49100
GUIDE
3D
American Robin
25.4”-33.7” | 64.5-85.5 cm
106.3”-130” | 270-330 cm (Wingspan)
39.4”-52” | 100-132 cm
17-33.1 lb | 7.7-15 kg
50-75 years
Andean Condor
85.500
330.000
132.000
15.000
75.00
45450
GUIDE
3D
Andean Condor
5.1”-6.3” | 13-16 cm
25.6”-30.3” | 65-77 cm (Wingspan)
14.2”-16.9” | 36-43 cm
.2-.3 lb | .08-.13 kg
15-34 years
Arctic Tern
16.000
77.000
43.000
0.130
34.00
35400
GUIDE
3D
Arctic Tern
8.7”-9.8” | 22-25 cm
18.5”-24.8” | 47-63 cm (Wingspan)
11”-12.2” | 28-31 cm
.7-1.2 lb | .3-.55 kg
15-36 years
Atlantic Puffin
25.000
63.000
31.000
0.550
36.00
14700
GUIDE
3D
Atlantic Puffin
14.2”-17.9” | 36-45.5 cm
31.5”-33.5” | 80-85 cm (Wingspan)
23.6”-29.5” | 60-75 cm
4-6.6 lb | 1.8-3 kg
10-13 years
Australian Brushturkey
45.500
85.000
75.000
3.000
13.00
120
GUIDE
3D
Australian Brushturkey
16.9”-24.2” | 43-61.5 cm
70”-90” | 178-229 cm (Wingspan)
27.6”-39.4” | 70-100 cm
6.5-14 lb | 2.95-6.35 kg
20-30 years
Bald Eagle
61.500
229.000
100.000
6.350
30.00
272400
GUIDE
3D
Bald Eagle
Barn Owl
201000
12.2”-15.2” | 31-38.5 cm
31.5”-43.3” | 80-110 cm (Wingspan)
12.6”-15.75” | 32-40 cm
.55-1.26 lb | .25-.57 kg
4-15 years
Barn Owl
38.500
110.000
40.000
0.570
15.00
201000
GUIDE
3D
Barn Owl
19.3”-26.2” | 49-66.5 cm
90.6”-112.2” | 230-285 cm (Wingspan)
37”-49.2” | 94-125 cm
8.2-15.7 lb | 3.7-7.1 kg
21-45 years
Bearded Vulture
66.500
285.000
125.000
7.100
45.00
31900
GUIDE
3D
Bearded Vulture
8.3”-10.4” | 21-26.5 cm
42.1”-50” | 107-127 cm (Wingspan)
15.75”-19.7” | 40-50 cm
.6-.8 lb | .25-.37 kg
5-20 years
Black Skimmer
26.500
127.000
50.000
0.370
20.00
4250
GUIDE
3D
Black Skimmer
24”-30.7” | 61-78 cm
63”-79” | 160-201 cm (Wingspan)
43.3”-55.9” | 110-142 cm
8.2-19.8 lb | 3.7-9 kg
12-40 years
Black Swan
78.000
201.000
142.000
9.000
40.00
695200
GUIDE
3D
Black Swan
12.6”-15” | 32-38 cm
27.6”-32.3” | 70-82 cm (Wingspan)
14.6”-17.3” | 37-44 cm
.42-.88 lb | .19-.4 kg
10-24 years
Black-Tailed Godwit
38.000
82.000
44.000
0.400
24.00
1000
GUIDE
3D
Black-Tailed Godwit
15.75”-19.1” | 40-48.5 cm
28”-32.7” | 71-83 cm (Wingspan)
13”-15.75” | 33-40 cm
.33-.44 lb | .15-.2 kg
10-20 years
Black-Winged Stilt
48.500
83.000
40.000
0.200
20.00
1150
GUIDE
3D
Black-Winged Stilt
3.1”-3.9” | 8-10 cm
10.2”-11.4” | 26-29 cm (Wingspan)
5.5”-6.7” | 14-17 cm
.9-1.1 oz | 26-32 g
5-10 years
Blue Grosbeak
10.000
29.000
17.000
0.032
10.00
7700
GUIDE
3D
Blue Grosbeak
Blue Jay
304100
5.7”-7.7” | 14.5-19.5 cm
13.4”-16.9” | 34-43 cm (Wingspan)
8.7”-11.8” | 22-30 cm
2.3-3.5 oz | 65-100 g
7-26 years
Blue Jay
19.500
43.000
30.000
0.100
26.00
304100
GUIDE
3D
Blue Jay
16.3”-17.5” | 41.5-44.5 cm
52”-61” | 132-155 cm (Wingspan)
29.5”-31.5” | 75-80 cm
2-4 lb | .9-1.8 kg
20-32 years
Brown Booby
44.500
155.000
80.000
1.800
32.00
2350
GUIDE
3D
Brown Booby
1.6”-2” | 4-5 cm
6.7”-7.9” | 17-20 cm (Wingspan)
4.7”-5.5” | 12-14 cm
.2-.35 oz | 5.7-9.9 g
2-5 years
Brown Creeper
5.000
20.000
14.000
0.010
5.00
7250
GUIDE
3D
Brown Creeper
5.5”-7.3” | 14-18.5 cm
11.4”-13” | 29-33 cm (Wingspan)
9.1”-11.8” | 23-30 cm
2.2-3.1 oz | 61-88 g
2-13 years
Brown Thrasher
18.500
33.000
30.000
0.088
13.00
25080
GUIDE
3D
Brown Thrasher
7.5”-9.4” | 19-24 cm
20”-24” | 51-61 cm (Wingspan)
13”-16” | 33-41 cm
.6-1.2 lb | .27-.55 kg
3-18 years
Bufflehead
24.000
61.000
41.000
0.550
18.00
21060
GUIDE
3D
Bufflehead
5.3”-8.9” | 13.5-22.5 cm
20”-24” | 51-61 cm (Wingspan)
6.7”-11” | 17-28 cm
.29-.57 lb | .13-.26 kg
6-11 years
Burrowing Owl
22.500
61.000
28.000
0.260
11.00
34200
GUIDE
3D
Burrowing Owl
3.7”-4.7” | 9.5-12 cm
10.6”-11” | 27-28 cm (Wingspan)
7.1”-9.1” | 18-23 cm
1.2-1.7 oz | 33-47 g
2-7 years
Cactus Wren
12.000
28.000
23.000
0.047
7.00
8620
GUIDE
3D
Cactus Wren
30.3”-37.4” | 77-95 cm
106.3”-126” | 270-320 cm (Wingspan)
42.9”-52.8” | 109-134 cm
18.7-26.5 lb | 8.5-12 kg
30-60 years
California Condor
95.000
320.000
134.000
12.000
60.00
53200
GUIDE
3D
California Condor
5.9”-6.7” | 15-17 cm
12.6”-16.1” | 32-41 cm (Wingspan)
9.4”-10.6” | 24-27 cm
.33-.42 lb | .15-.19 kg
4-10 years
California Quail
17.000
41.000
27.000
0.190
10.00
15100
GUIDE
3D
California Quail
14.6”-21.7” | 37-55 cm
50”-73” | 127-185 cm (Wingspan)
29.5”-43.3” | 75-110 cm
5.5-14 lb | 2.5-6.35 kg
10-24 years
Canada Goose
55.000
185.000
110.000
6.350
24.00
31200
GUIDE
3D
Canada Goose
3”-3.5” | 7.5-9 cm
9.4”-11.4” | 24-29 cm (Wingspan)
4.7”-5.5” | 12-14 cm
.6-.8 oz | 18-23 g
6-9 years
Carolina Wren
9.000
29.000
14.000
0.023
9.00
39050
GUIDE
3D
Carolina Wren
3.3”-4.7” | 8.5-12 cm
8.7”-11.8” | 22-30 cm (Wingspan)
5.5”-7.9” | 14-20 cm
1-1.1 oz | 28-32 g
3-8 years
Cedar Waxwing
12.000
30.000
20.000
0.032
8.00
39350
GUIDE
3D
Cedar Waxwing
27”-30” | 68-76 cm
7-12 lb | 3.2-5.3 kg
15-20 years
Chinstrap Penguin
76.000
5.300
20.00
6900
GUIDE
3D
Chinstrap Penguin
Chukar
20400
9.1”-10.2” | 23-26 cm
20.1”-22” | 51-56 cm (Wingspan)
13.4”-15” | 34-38 cm
1-1.76 lb | .45-.8 kg
3-5 years
Chukar
26.000
56.000
38.000
0.800
5.00
20400
GUIDE
3D
Chukar
5.5”-6.9” | 14-17.5 cm
13.4”-15.4” | 34-39 cm (Wingspan)
9.1”-11.4” | 23-29 cm
2.8-4.4 oz | 80-125 g
2-22 years
Common Blackbird
17.500
39.000
29.000
0.125
22.00
34300
GUIDE
3D
Common Blackbird
11.6”-16.7” | 29.5-42.5 cm
43.3”-51.2” | 110-130 cm (Wingspan)
17.7”-25.6” | 45-65 cm
1.2-2.9 lb | .55-1.3 kg
20-29 years
Common Buzzard
42.500
130.000
65.000
1.300
29.00
21900
GUIDE
3D
Common Buzzard
8.1”-9.4” | 20.5-24 cm
26.8”-31.5” | 68-80 cm (Wingspan)
13”-15.4” | 33-39 cm
.31-.68 lb | .14-.31 kg
15-18 years
Common Kestrel
24.000
80.000
39.000
0.310
18.00
33500
GUIDE
3D
Common Kestrel
11.4”-14.6” | 29-37 cm
34”-38” | 86-97 cm (Wingspan)
22”-28” | 56-71 cm
2-4.6 lb | .9-2.1 kg
11-15 years
Common Merganser
37.000
97.000
71.000
2.100
15.00
13350
GUIDE
3D
Common Merganser
11.8”-14.2” | 30-36 cm
24”-28.7” | 61-73 cm (Wingspan)
15”-17.7” | 38-45 cm
1.7-2.8 lb | .78-1.25 kg
15-41 years
Common Murre
36.000
73.000
45.000
1.250
41.00
5500
GUIDE
3D
Common Murre
12.4”-16.1” | 31.5-41 cm
22”-35.4” | 56-90 cm (Wingspan)
27.6”-35.4” | 70-90 cm
1.7-3.75 lb | .75-1.7 kg
11-20 years
Common Pheasant
41.000
90.000
90.000
1.700
20.00
4200
GUIDE
3D
Common Pheasant
5.3”-6.1” | 13.5-15.5 cm
12.6”-13.8” | 32-35 cm (Wingspan)
6.3”-7.1” | 16-18 cm
.22-.37 lb | .1-.17 kg
2-6 years
Common Quail
15.500
35.000
18.000
0.170
6.00
13500
GUIDE
3D
Common Quail
12.2”-15.75” | 31-40 cm
45.3”-59” | 115-150 cm (Wingspan)
20.9”-26.4” | 53-67 cm
24.7-70.5 oz | .7-2 kg
10-44 years
Common Raven
40.000
150.000
67.000
2.000
44.00
49000
GUIDE
3D
Common Raven
4.5”-5.7” | 11.5-14.5 cm
13.8”-15.75” | 35-40 cm (Wingspan)
7.5”-9.4” | 19-24 cm
.09-.13 lb | .04-.06 kg
10-15 years
Common Sandpiper
14.500
40.000
24.000
0.060
15.00
5700
GUIDE
3D
Common Sandpiper
4.7”-5.3” | 12-13.5 cm
15.75”-18.5” | 40-47 cm (Wingspan)
9.8”-11” | 25-28 cm
.18-.4 lb | .08-.18 kg
10-18 years
Common Snipe
13.500
47.000
28.000
0.180
18.00
6500
GUIDE
3D
Common Snipe
5.3”-5.7” | 13.5-14.5 cm
13.4”-13.8” | 34-35 cm (Wingspan)
10.6”-11” | 27-28 cm
2.2-3.3 oz | 61-94 g
5-11 years
Curve-Billed Thrasher
14.500
35.000
28.000
0.094
11.00
1650
GUIDE
3D
Curve-Billed Thrasher
9.8”-14.6” | 25-37 cm
23.6”-35.4” | 60-90 cm (Wingspan)
15.75”-23.6” | 40-60 cm
5.7-9.9 lb | 2.6-4.5 kg
2-20 months (Farm); 3-10 years (Captivity)
Domestic Chicken
37.000
90.000
60.000
4.500
10.00
8400
GUIDE
3D
Domestic Chicken
24.4”-29.9” | 62-76 cm
58”-71” | 147-180 cm (Wingspan)
29.1”-35.8” | 74-91 cm
4.9-10.1 lb | 2.2-4.6 kg
15-31 years
Domestic Goose
76.000
180.000
91.000
4.600
31.00
9200
GUIDE
3D
Domestic Goose
25.6”-31.5” | 65-80 cm
59.1”-70.9” | 150-180 cm (Wingspan)
39.4”-49.2” | 100-125 cm
29.8-86 lb | 13.5-39 kg
5-6 months (Farm); 3-5 years (Wild)
Domestic Turkey
80.000
180.000
125.000
39.000
5.00
5900
GUIDE
3D
Domestic Turkey
19.9”-25.4” | 50.5-64.5 cm
44.9”-48.4” | 114-123 cm (Wingspan)
27.6”-35.4” | 70-90 cm
2.6-5.5 lb | 1.2-2.5 kg
6-22 years
Double-Crested Cormorant
64.500
123.000
90.000
2.500
22.00
300
GUIDE
3D
Double-Crested Cormorant
5.3”-7.9” | 13.5-20 cm
13.8”-15.75” | 35-40 cm (Wingspan)
7.5”-11” | 19-28 cm
2.7-5.3 oz | 76-150 g
3-9 years
Eastern Meadowlark
20.000
40.000
28.000
0.150
9.00
4890
GUIDE
3D
Eastern Meadowlark
4.1”-6.7” | 10.5-17 cm
18.1”-24” | 46-61 cm (Wingspan)
6.3”-9.8” | 16-25 cm
.26-.55 lb | .12-.25 kg
14-21 years
Eastern Screech Owl
17.000
61.000
25.000
0.250
21.00
18100
GUIDE
3D
Eastern Screech Owl
15.75”-17.3” | 40-44 cm
48”-56” | 122-142 cm (Wingspan)
26”-28” | 66-71 cm
4.3-6.9 lb | 1.95-3.13 kg
6-12 years
Emperor Goose
44.000
142.000
71.000
3.130
12.00
2530
GUIDE
3D
Emperor Goose
43”-51” | 110-130 cm
49-99 lb | 22-45 kg
15-20 years
Emperor Penguin
130.000
45.000
20.00
44000
GUIDE
3D
Emperor Penguin
20”-26” | 51-66 cm
9.4”-11.8” | 24-30 cm
6-13 lb | 2.7-5.9 kg
10-20 years
Erect-Crested Penguin
66.000
30.000
5.900
20.00
1200
GUIDE
3D
Erect-Crested Penguin
7.5”-8.7” | 19-22 cm
21.7”-23.6” | 55-60 cm (Wingspan)
13”-15” | 33-38 cm
.51-.93 lb | .23-.42 kg
10-15.5 years
Eurasian Woodcock
22.000
60.000
38.000
0.420
15.50
2000
GUIDE
3D
Eurasian Woodcock
14.2”-19.5” | 36-49.5 cm
52”-59.8” | 132-152 cm (Wingspan)
19.7”-27.2” | 50-69 cm
2.2-4.6 lb | .98-2.08 kg
16-24 years
Ferruginous Hawk
49.500
152.000
69.000
2.080
24.00
10200
GUIDE
3D
Ferruginous Hawk
21”-23” | 53-58 cm
7.9”-9.1” | 20-23 cm
4.4-13.2 lb | 2-6 kg
10-20 years
Fiordland Penguin
58.000
23.000
6.000
20.00
1600
GUIDE
3D
Fiordland Penguin
Gadwall
14040
11”-13.4” | 28-34 cm
31”-35” | 79-89 cm (Wingspan)
18”-22” | 46-56 cm
1.2-2.2 lb | .55-1 kg
10-28 years
Gadwall
34.000
89.000
56.000
1.000
28.00
14040
GUIDE
3D
Gadwall
18”-21” | 46-53 cm
5.5”-6.7” | 14-17 cm
3.5-6 lb | 1.6-2.7 kg
15-20 years
Galápagos Penguin
53.000
17.000
2.700
20.00
16400
GUIDE
3D
Galápagos Penguin
20”-35” | 51-90 cm
11-19 lb | 4.9-8.5 kg
15-20 years
Gentoo Penguin
90.000
8.500
20.00
9900
GUIDE
3D
Gentoo Penguin
19.7”-23.6” | 50-60 cm
72.8”-88.6” | 185-225 cm (Wingspan)
29.5”-35.4” | 75-90 cm
6.2-14.8 lb | 2.8-6.7 kg
30-48 years
Golden Eagle
60.000
225.000
90.000
6.700
48.00
235500
GUIDE
3D
Golden Eagle
15.2”-19.5” | 38.5-49.5 cm
25.6”-29.5” | 65-75 cm (Wingspan)
35.4”-45.3” | 90-115 cm
1.2-1.5 lb | .55-.7 kg
5-15 years
Golden Pheasant
49.500
75.000
115.000
0.700
15.00
52500
GUIDE
3D
Golden Pheasant
29.5”-33.5” | 75-85 cm
8.9”-10.8” | 22.5-27.5 cm
35.4”-40.9” | 90-104 cm
11-15.4 lb | 5-7 kg
20-25 years
Great Auk
85.000
27.500
104.000
7.000
25.00
25600
GUIDE
3D
Great Auk
24”-29.1” | 61-74 cm
29.5”-35.4” | 75-90 cm (Wingspan)
30.7”-36.2” | 78-92 cm
6.8-10.6 lb | 3.1-4.8 kg
22-24 years
Great Curassow
74.000
90.000
92.000
4.800
24.00
1300
GUIDE
3D
Great Curassow
9.6”-14.2” | 24.5-36 cm
35.8”-59.8” | 91-152 cm (Wingspan)
16.9”-25.2” | 43-64 cm
2-5.5 lb | .9-2.5 kg
13-35 years
Great Horned Owl
36.000
152.000
64.000
2.500
35.00
106000
GUIDE
3D
Great Horned Owl
13.4”-15.2” | 34-38.5 cm
49.2”-55.1” | 125-140 cm (Wingspan)
20.9”-22.8” | 53-58 cm
2.6-4.4 lb | 1.2-2 kg
22-36 years
Great Skua
38.500
140.000
58.000
2.000
36.00
2500
GUIDE
3D
Great Skua
43.3”-59” | 110-150 cm
55.1”-66.9” | 140-170 cm (Wingspan)
43.3”-59” | 110-150 cm
4.4-9.9 lb | 2-4.5 kg
30-60 years
Greater Flamingo
150.000
170.000
150.000
4.500
60.00
18300
GUIDE
3D
Greater Flamingo
12.2”-13.2” | 31-33.5 cm
27.2”-28.7” | 69-73 cm (Wingspan)
16.9”-18.1” | 43-46 cm
1.5-2.6 lb | .7-1.2 kg
2-5 years
Greater Prairie Chicken
33.500
73.000
46.000
1.200
5.00
3700
GUIDE
3D
Greater Prairie Chicken
28.3”-38.6” | 72-98 cm
47.2”-63” | 120-160 cm (Wingspan)
35.4”-50” | 90-127 cm (Body); 70.9”-96.5” | 180-245 cm (Overall)
8.5-11 lb | 3.85-5 kg
15-23 years
Green Peafowl
98.000
160.000
245.000
5.000
23.00
9700
GUIDE
3D
Green Peafowl
12.6”-19.7” | 32-50 cm
22”-33.9” | 56-86 cm (Wingspan)
22”-35.4” | 56-90 cm
1.5-3.1 lb | .7-1.4 kg
2-3 years
Green Pheasant
50.000
86.000
90.000
1.400
3.00
4650
GUIDE
3D
Green Pheasant
9.1”-9.8” | 23-25 cm
20.9”-22” | 53-56 cm (Wingspan)
11.8”-13” | 30-33 cm
.75-1.1 lb | .34-.48 kg
2-5 years
Grey Partridge
25.000
56.000
33.000
0.480
5.00
8200
GUIDE
3D
Grey Partridge
5.7”-6.7” | 14.5-17 cm
18.9”-20.1” | 48-51 cm (Wingspan)
9.1”-10.6” | 23-27 cm
.18-.26 lb | .08-.12 kg
13-15 years
Grey-Tailed Tattler
17.000
51.000
27.000
0.120
15.00
140
GUIDE
3D
Grey-Tailed Tattler
25.8”-33.1” | 65.5-84 cm
90.6”-110.2” | 230-280 cm (Wingspan)
37.4”-48” | 95-122 cm
13.2-33.1 lb | 6-15 kg
35-42 years
Griffon Vulture
84.000
280.000
122.000
15.000
42.00
20700
GUIDE
3D
Griffon Vulture
14.6”-19.3” | 37-49 cm
43.3”-63” | 110-160 cm (Wingspan)
18.9”-25.6” | 48-65 cm
1.8-4.6 lb | .8-2.1 kg
12-25 years
Gyrfalcon
49.000
160.000
65.000
2.100
25.00
17700
GUIDE
3D
Gyrfalcon
8.7”-12.6” | 22-32 cm
22”-26” | 56-66 cm (Wingspan)
14”-20” | 36-51 cm
1-1.7 lb | .45-.76 kg
12-20 years
Harlequin Duck
32.000
66.000
51.000
0.760
20.00
12050
GUIDE
3D
Harlequin Duck
21.7”-26.6” | 55-67.5 cm
69.3”-88.2” | 176-224 cm (Wingspan)
34.3”-42.9” | 87-109 cm
8.8-19.8 lb | 4-9 kg
25-35 years
Harpy Eagle
67.500
224.000
109.000
9.000
35.00
293500
GUIDE
3D
Harpy Eagle
16.5”-19.7” | 42-50 cm
37.4”-39.4” | 95-100 cm (Wingspan)
20.9”-24.8” | 53-63 cm
2.2-4 lb | 1-1.8 kg
10-15 years
Helmeted Guineafowl
50.000
100.000
63.000
1.800
15.00
9650
GUIDE
3D
Helmeted Guineafowl
11.8”-15.2” | 30-38.5 cm
38.2”-48” | 97-122 cm (Wingspan)
16.1”-20.5” | 41-52 cm
.64-1.39 lb | .29-.63 kg
8-17 years
Hen Harrier
38.500
122.000
52.000
0.630
17.00
13900
GUIDE
3D
Hen Harrier
9.8”-12.2” | 25-31 cm
23”-28” | 58-71 cm (Wingspan)
15.75”-19.3” | 40-49 cm
1-1.9 lb | .45-.88 kg
11-16 years
Hooded Merganser
31.000
71.000
49.000
0.880
16.00
27070
GUIDE
3D
Hooded Merganser
17.3”-23.6” | 44-60 cm
35.4”-51.2” | 90-130 cm (Wingspan)
33.5”-46” | 85-117 cm
4.4-5.5 lb | 2-2.5 kg
10-20 years
Horned Guan
60.000
130.000
117.000
2.500
20.00
700
GUIDE
3D
Horned Guan
3.7”-4.7” | 9.5-12 cm
11.8”-13.4” | 30-34 cm (Wingspan)
6.3”-7.9” | 16-20 cm
1-1.7 oz | 28-48 g
2-8 years
Horned Lark
12.000
34.000
20.000
0.048
8.00
5050
GUIDE
3D
Horned Lark
24”-28” | 61-71 cm
7.9”-9.4” | 20-24 cm
8-13 lb | 3.6-6 kg
10-20 years
Humboldt Penguin
71.000
24.000
6.000
20.00
11200
GUIDE
3D
Humboldt Penguin
7.7”-8.5” | 19.5-21.5 cm
27.6”-29.5” | 70-75 cm (Wingspan)
15”-16.5” | 38-42 cm
.6-.71 lb | .27-.32 kg
15-26 years
Ibisbill
21.500
75.000
42.000
0.320
26.00
70
GUIDE
3D
Ibisbill
26.4”-30.7” | 67-78 cm
55.1”-63” | 140-160 cm (Wingspan)
39.4”-45.3” | 100-115 cm (Body); 76.8”-88.6” | 195-225 cm (Overall)
6.1-13.2 lb | 2.75-6 kg
10-25 years
Indian Peafowl
78.000
160.000
225.000
6.000
25.00
29500
GUIDE
3D
Indian Peafowl
5.5”-6.3” | 14-16 cm
11”-13” | 28-33 cm (Wingspan)
6.3”-7.1” | 16-18 cm
.22-.35 lb | .1-.16 kg
2-6 years
Japanese Quail
16.000
33.000
18.000
0.160
6.00
10400
GUIDE
3D
Japanese Quail
5.9”-7.9” | 15-20 cm
18.1”-18.9” | 46-48 cm (Wingspan)
7.9”-10.6” | 20-27 cm
.17-.28 lb | .075-.128 kg
10-12 years
Killdeer
20.000
48.000
27.000
0.128
12.00
42250
GUIDE
3D
Killdeer
28”-39” | 70-100 cm
21-40 lb | 9.3-18 kg
15-30 years
King Penguin
100.000
18.000
30.00
15000
GUIDE
3D
King Penguin
63”-67” | 160-170 cm
17.7”-19.3” | 45-49 cm
198-220 lb | 90-100 kg
Kumimanu
170.000
49.000
100.000
750
GUIDE
3D
Kumimanu
12”-15” | 30.5-38 cm
4.7”-5.9” | 12-15 cm
2-3.5 lb | .9-1.6 kg
5-7 years
Little Penguin
38.000
15.000
1.600
7.00
19800
GUIDE
3D
Little Penguin
3.9”-4.5” | 10-11.5 cm
11”-12.6” | 28-32 cm (Wingspan)
7.9”-9.1” | 20-23 cm
1.2-1.8 oz | 34-51 g
7-13 years
Loggerhead Shrike
11.500
32.000
23.000
0.051
13.00
7650
GUIDE
3D
Loggerhead Shrike
24”-27” | 61-69 cm
7-14 lb | 3.2-6.4 kg
15-20 years
Macaroni Penguin
69.000
6.400
20.00
15000
GUIDE
3D
Macaroni Penguin
24”-30” | 61-76 cm
8.3”-10.6” | 21-27 cm
5.5-14.3 lb | 2.5-6.5 kg
20-30 years
Magellanic Penguin
76.000
27.000
6.500
30.00
8400
GUIDE
3D
Magellanic Penguin
12.2”-15.75” | 31-40 cm
85.4”-96” | 217-244 cm (Wingspan)
35”-44.9” | 89-114 cm
2.2-4.2 lb | 1-1.9 kg
10-22 years
Magnificent Frigatebird
40.000
244.000
114.000
1.900
22.00
6100
GUIDE
3D
Magnificent Frigatebird
Maleo
14040
16.1”-18.5” | 41-47 cm
11.8”-13.4” | 30-34 cm (Wingspan)
21.7”-23.6” | 55-60 cm
2.9-4 lb | 1.3-1.8 kg
16-23 years
Maleo
47.000
34.000
60.000
1.800
23.00
14040
GUIDE
3D
Maleo
Mallard
105400
12.6”-17.7” | 32-45 cm
32”-39” | 81-99 cm (Wingspan)
19.7”-28” | 50-71 cm
1.5-3.5 lb | .7-1.6 kg
5-29 years
Mallard
45.000
99.000
71.000
1.600
29.00
105400
GUIDE
3D
Mallard
8.3”-9.1” | 21-23 cm
29.5”-32.7” | 75-83 cm (Wingspan)
13.4”-14.6” | 34-37 cm
.46-.86 lb | .21-.39 kg
7-11 years
Mississippi Kite
23.000
83.000
37.000
0.390
11.00
9450
GUIDE
3D
Mississippi Kite
7.9”-8.9” | 20-22.5 cm
13.8”-15.75” | 35-40 cm (Wingspan)
10.2”-11” | 26-28 cm
.42-.64 lb | .19-.29 kg
2-4 years
Mountain Quail
22.500
40.000
28.000
0.290
4.00
5400
GUIDE
3D
Mountain Quail
14.2”-18.1” | 36-46 cm
54”-60” | 137-152 cm (Wingspan)
26”-33.1” | 66-84 cm
6-15 lb | 2.72-6.8 kg
6-15 years
Muscovy Duck
46.000
152.000
84.000
6.800
15.00
68000
GUIDE
3D
Muscovy Duck
33.1”-42.9” | 84-109 cm
59”-94” | 150-239 cm (Wingspan)
49.2”-63” | 125-160 cm
19-26 lb | 8.62-11.79 kg
15-25 years
Mute Swan
109.000
239.000
160.000
11.790
25.00
24800
GUIDE
3D
Mute Swan
6.3”-7.5” | 16-19 cm
13”-15” | 33-38 cm (Wingspan)
9.4”-11” | 24-28 cm
.35-.4 lb | .16-.18 kg
3-7 years
Northern Bobwhite
19.000
38.000
28.000
0.180
7.00
5500
GUIDE
3D
Northern Bobwhite
Gadwall (Mareca strepera)
Scale illustration of an average Gadwall compared to other waterfowl species

The Gadwall (Mareca strepera) is a common duck in that occupies open wetlands, wet grasslands, or marshes with dense fringing vegetation. A breeding male is patterned gray with a black rear end, light chestnut wings, and a white speculum. When non-breeding, it looks similar to the female, but the male keeps the same wing pattern. The female is light brown with a dark-orange edged bill, white speculum, and white belly. The Gadwall is a fairly quiet species; the male’s call is hoarse and whistling, and the female has a mallard-like quack. They feed on mollusks and insects.

The Gadwall has a wingspan in the range of 31”-35” (79-89 cm) and total weight of 1.2-2.2 lb (.55-1 kg). The body of the Gadwall has an overall length between 18”-22” (46-56 cm), body width of 3.9”-5.5” (10-14 cm), and standing height of roughly 11”-13.4” (28-34 cm). The typical lifespan of the Gadwall is between 10-28 years.

Series of measured illustrations of the Gadwall
The Gadwall (Mareca strepera) is a common duck in that occupies open wetlands, wet grasslands, or marshes with dense fringing vegetation. A breeding male is patterned gray with a black rear end, light chestnut wings, and a white speculum. The Gadwall is a fairly quiet species.

The Gadwall has a wingspan in the range of 31”-35” (79-89 cm) and total weight of 1.2-2.2 lb (.55-1 kg). The body of the Gadwall has an overall length between 18”-22” (46-56 cm), body width of 3.9”-5.5” (10-14 cm), and standing height of roughly 11”-13.4” (28-34 cm). The typical lifespan of the Gadwall is between 10-28 years.

Series of measured illustrations of the Gadwall
Gadwall (Mareca strepera)
Height:
11”-13.4” | 28-34 cm
Width:
31”-35” | 79-89 cm (Wingspan)
Length:
18”-22” | 46-56 cm
Depth:
Weight:
1.2-2.2 lb | .55-1 kg
Area:

Body Width: 3.9”-5.5” | 10-14 cm

Scientific Name
Mareca strepera
Lifespan
10-28 years

Drawings include:

Gadwall side view, front, flying (assorted)

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Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor)
Comparison drawing of the Little Penguin compared to other similar penguins and a person

The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) is found in New Zealand and the Southern coast of Australia. Some communities call it fairy penguin, blue penguin, or little blue penguin because of its slate-blue feathers. This marine seabird is among the smallest penguins in the world, flightless, and has a black bill. The chin, throat, torso, and underside of flippers are white, while the head and neck are indigo-blue. Juveniles have shorter and thinner beaks. Apart from that, males are larger than females. The Little penguin is diurnal and has a longer lifespan, and both sexes assume parental responsibility from the breeding process to when the young have hatched.

Little Penguins have an overall height between 12”-15” (30.5-38 cm) and body width of 4.7”-5.9” (12-15 cm). The typical weight of the Little Penguin is in the range of 2-3.5 lb (.9-1.6 kg). Little Penguins have lifespans between 5-7 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Little Penguin viewed from the side and front
The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) is found in New Zealand and the Southern coast of Australia. Some communities call it fairy penguin, blue penguin, or little blue penguin because of its slate-blue feathers. This marine seabird is among the smallest penguins in the world.

Little Penguins have an overall height between 12”-15” (30.5-38 cm) and body width of 4.7”-5.9” (12-15 cm). The typical weight of the Little Penguin is in the range of 2-3.5 lb (.9-1.6 kg). Little Penguins have lifespans between 5-7 years.

Set of scaled elevation drawings of the Little Penguin viewed from the side and front
Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor)
Height:
12”-15” | 30.5-38 cm
Width:
4.7”-5.9” | 12-15 cm
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
2-3.5 lb | .9-1.6 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Eudyptula minor
Lifespan
5-7 years

Drawings include:

Little Penguin side elevations, front, back

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Domestic Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus)
Scale illustration of an average Domestic Turkey compared to other gamefowl species

The Domestic Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus) is the same species as the Wild Turkey. It is much larger than the Wild Turkey as humans have breed the Domestic Turkey to become fatter and more friendly. It is believed that the Wild Turkey was domesticated about 2,000 years ago in Mesoamerica and in the Southwestern United States between 200 BC and AD 500. The Domestic Turkey does not live in the wild and can be found in controlled environments throughout the world except for Antarctica. It is bred for its meat. The Domesticated Turkey eats mostly food pellet, but can also eat insects, berries, seeds, and fruits.

The Domestic Turkey has a wingspan in the range of 59.1”-70.9” (150-180 cm) and total weight of 29.8-86 lb (13.5-39 kg). The body of the Domestic Turkey has an overall length between 39.4”-49.2” (100-125 cm), body width of 15”-18.5” (38-47 cm), and standing height of roughly 25.6”-31.5” (65-80 cm). The typical lifespan of the Domestic Turkey is between 5-6 months when farmed, and 3-5 years in the wild.

Series of measured illustrations of the Gobbler Domestic Turkey
The Domestic Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus) is the same species as the Wild Turkey. It is much larger than the Wild Turkey as humans have breed the Domestic Turkey to become fatter and more friendly. It is believed that the Wild Turkey was domesticated about 2,000 years ago in Mesoamerica.

The Domestic Turkey has a wingspan in the range of 59.1”-70.9” (150-180 cm) and total weight of 29.8-86 lb (13.5-39 kg). The body of the Domestic Turkey has an overall length between 39.4”-49.2” (100-125 cm), body width of 15”-18.5” (38-47 cm), and standing height of roughly 25.6”-31.5” (65-80 cm). The typical lifespan of the Domestic Turkey is between 5-6 months when farmed, and 3-5 years in the wild.

Series of measured illustrations of the Gobbler Domestic Turkey
Domestic Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus)
Height:
25.6”-31.5” | 65-80 cm
Width:
59.1”-70.9” | 150-180 cm (Wingspan)
Length:
39.4”-49.2” | 100-125 cm
Depth:
Weight:
29.8-86 lb | 13.5-39 kg
Area:

Body Width: 15”-18.5” | 38-47 cm

Scientific Name
Meleagris gallopavo domesticus
Lifespan
5-6 months (Farm); 3-5 years (Wild)

Drawings include:

Domestic Turkey side view, front

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Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)
Comparison drawing of the Bald Eagle compared to other birds of prey

The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a North American bird of prey that can be found in Canada, Alaska, all of the contiguous United States, and northern Mexico. The species occupies large bodies of open water that provide an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting. Bald Eagles are not actually bald, as the name is from an older meaning of the word, ”white-headed”; they are brown with a white head and tail, and the beak is large and hooked. As an opportunistic feeder, the bird mainly eats fish which is caught when the eagle swoops down and snatches it from the water.

The Bald Eagle has a wingspan in the range of 70”-90” (178-229 cm) and total weight of 6.5-14 lb (2.95-6.35 kg). The body of the Bald Eagle has an overall length between 27.6”-39.4” (70-100 cm), body width of 9.4”-13” (24-33 cm), and standing height of roughly 16.9”-24.2” (43-61.5 cm). The typical lifespan of the Bald Eagle is between 20-30 years.

Set of scaled side and front drawings of the Bald Eagle
The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a North American bird of prey that can be found in Canada, Alaska, all of the contiguous United States, and northern Mexico. The species occupies large bodies of open water that provide an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting.

The Bald Eagle has a wingspan in the range of 70”-90” (178-229 cm) and total weight of 6.5-14 lb (2.95-6.35 kg). The body of the Bald Eagle has an overall length between 27.6”-39.4” (70-100 cm), body width of 9.4”-13” (24-33 cm), and standing height of roughly 16.9”-24.2” (43-61.5 cm). The typical lifespan of the Bald Eagle is between 20-30 years.

Set of scaled side and front drawings of the Bald Eagle
Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)
Height:
16.9”-24.2” | 43-61.5 cm
Width:
70”-90” | 178-229 cm (Wingspan)
Length:
27.6”-39.4” | 70-100 cm
Depth:
Weight:
6.5-14 lb | 2.95-6.35 kg
Area:

Body Width: 9.4”-13” | 24-33 cm

Scientific Name
Haliaeetus leucocephalus
Lifespan
20-30 years

Drawings include:

Bald Eagle side view, front, flying (assorted)

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Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator)
Comparison drawing of the Trumpeter Swan compared to other waterfowl

The Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) is a North American swan species and the heaviest living bird native to North America. Its name is in reference to the swan’s cry which is loud, musical, and similar to the sound of a trumpet. The plumage of an adult swan is entirely white; it has a large, wedge-shaped black bill that is sometimes minimally lined with salmon-pink around the mouth. They breed in large shallow ponds, undisturbed lakes, wetlands, and wide slow rivers in northwestern and central North America, and in the winter they migrate to the southern tier of Canada and parts of the United States.

The Trumpeter Swan has a wingspan in the range of 72”-102” (183-259 cm) and total weight of 15.4-30 lb (7-13.6 kg). The body of the Trumpeter Swan has an overall length between 57.1”-70.9” (145-180 cm), body width of 13”-16.1” (33-41 cm), and standing height of roughly 37.8”-46.5” (96-118 cm). The typical lifespan of the Trumpeter Swan is between 24-35 years.

Set of scaled top and elevation drawings of the Trumpeter Swan
The Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) is a North American swan species and the heaviest living bird native to North America. Its name is in reference to the swan’s cry which is loud, musical, and similar to the sound of a trumpet. The plumage of an adult swan is entirely white.

The Trumpeter Swan has a wingspan in the range of 72”-102” (183-259 cm) and total weight of 15.4-30 lb (7-13.6 kg). The body of the Trumpeter Swan has an overall length between 57.1”-70.9” (145-180 cm), body width of 13”-16.1” (33-41 cm), and standing height of roughly 37.8”-46.5” (96-118 cm). The typical lifespan of the Trumpeter Swan is between 24-35 years.

Set of scaled top and elevation drawings of the Trumpeter Swan
Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator)
Height:
37.8”-46.5” | 96-118 cm
Width:
72”-102” | 183-259 cm (Wingspan)
Length:
57.1”-70.9” | 145-180 cm
Depth:
Weight:
15.4-30 lb | 7-13.6 kg
Area:

Body Width: 13”-16.1” | 33-41 cm

Scientific Name
Cygnus buccinator
Lifespan
24-35 years

Drawings include:

Trumpeter Swan side view, front, flying (assorted)

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