Birds are a vertebrate class, like mammals, however they are a class adapted for flight that evolved alongside dinosaurs in the Jurassic period. Birds are distinguished by their feathers, toothless beaked jaws, laying of eggs, a high metabolic rate, four chambered heart, and a strong lightweight skeleton. Most of these characteristics were a result of years of evolution for birds to become the optimal flying machines they are today. Some of these evolutionary adaptations for birds include: forearms that evolved into wings, the shape of the wing developing for the most lift and glide (the shape which is the standard model for airplane wings), and the incubation of their young outside the womb to avoid excess weight while flying. A few species of birds, like the penguin and ostrich, have lost their ability to fly, but have retained their wings.

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Sparrows
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Chinstrap Penguin
Size comparison illustration of a Chinstrap Penguin compared to the height of a person

The Chinstrap Penguin acquires its name from its appearance, a narrow black band of feathers under its head, making it appear as if it were wearing a black helmet. Due to its large harsh call, its other names include ringed penguin, bearded penguin, and stonecracker penguin. The Chinstrap Penguin avoids detection from predators through countershading camouflage with its black back and white underside.  Further, its tightly packed feathers provide a waterproof coat that allow it to swim in freezing waters. The species has a circumpolar distribution, and they breed in Antarctica, Argentina, Bouvet Island, Chile, the Falkand Islands, the Fresh Southern Territories, and South Georgia.

The Chinstrap Penguin has an average height range of 27”-30” (68-76 cm), weight of 7-12 lb (3.2-5.3 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Collection of illustrations of Chinstrap Penguins in multiple positions from standing to walking
The Chinstrap Penguin acquires its name from its appearance, a narrow black band of feathers under its head, making it appear as if it were wearing a black helmet. Due to its large harsh call, its other names include ringed penguin, bearded penguin, and stonecracker penguin.

The Chinstrap Penguin has an average height range of 27”-30” (68-76 cm), weight of 7-12 lb (3.2-5.3 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Collection of illustrations of Chinstrap Penguins in multiple positions from standing to walking
Chinstrap Penguin
Height:
27”-30” | 68-76 cm
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7-12 lb | 3.2-5.3 kg
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Scientific Name
Pygoscelis antarcticus
Lifespan
15-20 years

Drawings include:
Chinstrap Penguin standing (side), standing (back), walking (front), standing (front), jumping (side), standing (winter woman)

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Macaroni Penguin
Dimensioned size comparison illustration of a Macaroni Penguin compared to the height of an average standing woman

The Macaroni Penguin is one of the six species of crested penguin, closely related to the Royal Penguin.  The species can be found from the Sub Antarctic to the Antarctic Peninsula. Macaroni penguins consume more marine life annually than any other seabird species, with a diet that consists mostly of crustaceans, such as krill, and small fish. They are distinguished by their yellow crest and the sharp delineation of their white underparts to their black upperparts and face. Since the mid-1970s the macaroni penguin is classified as under a vulnerable conservation status.

The Macaroni Penguin has an average height range of 24”-27” (61-69 cm), weight of 7-14 lb (3.2-6.4 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Collection of illustrations of the Macaroni Penguin in a range of postures viewed from the front, back and side
The Macaroni Penguin is one of the six species of crested penguin, closely related to the Royal Penguin. Macaroni penguins consume more marine life annually than any other seabird species, with a diet that consists mostly of crustaceans, such as krill, and small fish.

The Macaroni Penguin has an average height range of 24”-27” (61-69 cm), weight of 7-14 lb (3.2-6.4 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Collection of illustrations of the Macaroni Penguin in a range of postures viewed from the front, back and side
Macaroni Penguin
Height:
24”-27” | 61-69 cm
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Weight:
7-14 lb | 3.2-6.4 kg
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Scientific Name
Eudyptes chrysolophus
Lifespan
15-20 years

Drawings include:
Macaroni Penguin standing (side), looking (side), standing (back), walking (side), standing (front), standing (winter woman)

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Adélie Penguin
Dimensioned elevation drawing of the Adélie Penguin compared to the height of standing man

The Adélie Penguin is named after Adelie Land who was the wife of Jules Dumont d’Urville, the French explorer who discovered the penguin. The Adélie Penguin is the most wide spread and southernly distributed of all penguin species, with its only habitat is along the coast of the Antarctic continent. The species' distinguishing marks are the white ring that surrounds the penguins’ eye and feathers at the base of the bill, and their appearance resembles a tuxedo. Adélie penguins can swim at around five miles per hour, and they can leap 10 feet out of the water to land on rocks or ice.

The Adélie Penguin has an average height range of 18”-28” (46-71 cm), weight of 8-13 lb (3.6-6 kg), and typical lifespan of 11-20 years.

Drawings of Adélie Penguins in an assortment of postures and stances from standing to walking
The Adélie Penguin is named after Adelie Land who was the wife of Jules Dumont d’Urville, the French explorer who discovered the penguin. The species' distinguishing marks are the white ring that around the penguins’ eye and feathers at the base of the bill, and their appearance resembles a tuxedo.

The Adélie Penguin has an average height range of 18”-28” (46-71 cm), weight of 8-13 lb (3.6-6 kg), and typical lifespan of 11-20 years.

Drawings of Adélie Penguins in an assortment of postures and stances from standing to walking
Adélie Penguin
Height:
18”-28” | 46-71 cm
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Weight:
8-13 lb | 3.6-6 kg
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Scientific Name
Pygoscelis adeliae
Lifespan
11-20 years

Drawings include:
Adélie Penguin standing (side), looking (side), standing (back), walking (side), standing (front), standing (arctic man)

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Turkey
Dimensioned drawing comparing a farm turkey to a human with average lengths and heights

Turkeys are a large game bird native to North America and can be identified by their fan-shaped tail feathers, bald heads and red wattle that hangs from their neck. Female turkeys are referred to as hens, while males are known as toms. Typically domesticated as a poultry food source, turkeys are traditionally famous for serving during festive occasions such as Thanksgiving and Christmas.

The typical Turkey has an overall height of 48.0" (122 cm) and body length of 46.0" (117 cm). An average Turkey weighs between 17-30 lb (7.7-13.6 kg) and has a typical lifespan of 1.5-1.75 years (farm); 10 (wild).

Multiple drawings of a turkey from the front and side showing walking, standing, and pointing
Turkeys are a large game bird native to North America and can be identified by their fan-shaped tail feathers, bald heads and red wattle that hangs from their neck. Turkeys average 4’ | 122 cm in height with weights that average 17 lbs | 7.7 kg in the wild.

The typical Turkey has an overall height of 48.0" (122 cm) and body length of 46.0" (117 cm). An average Turkey weighs between 17-30 lb (7.7-13.6 kg) and has a typical lifespan of 1.5-1.75 years (farm); 10 (wild).

Multiple drawings of a turkey from the front and side showing walking, standing, and pointing
Turkey
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48.0" (4’) | 122 cm
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Length:
46.0" (3’10”) | 117 cm
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Weight:
17-30 lb | 7.7-13.6 kg
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Uses: Meat

Meleagris gallopavo
Lifespan
1.5-1.75 years (farm); 10 (wild)

Drawings include:
Turkeys side elevation (walking), front, side (standing), side (pointing)

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