Birds are a vertebrate class, like mammals, however they are a class adapted for flight that evolved alongside dinosaurs in the Jurassic period. Birds are distinguished by their feathers, toothless beaked jaws, laying of eggs, a high metabolic rate, four chambered heart, and a strong lightweight skeleton. Most of these characteristics were a result of years of evolution for birds to become the optimal flying machines they are today. Some of these evolutionary adaptations for birds include: forearms that evolved into wings, the shape of the wing developing for the most lift and glide (the shape which is the standard model for airplane wings), and the incubation of their young outside the womb to avoid excess weight while flying. A few species of birds, like the penguin and ostrich, have lost their ability to fly, but have retained their wings.

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Chinstrap Penguin
Size comparison illustration of a Chinstrap Penguin compared to the height of a person

The Chinstrap Penguin acquires its name from its appearance, a narrow black band of feathers under its head, making it appear as if it were wearing a black helmet. Due to its large harsh call, its other names include ringed penguin, bearded penguin, and stonecracker penguin. The Chinstrap Penguin avoids detection from predators through countershading camouflage with its black back and white underside.  Further, its tightly packed feathers provide a waterproof coat that allow it to swim in freezing waters. The species has a circumpolar distribution, and they breed in Antarctica, Argentina, Bouvet Island, Chile, the Falkand Islands, the Fresh Southern Territories, and South Georgia.

The Chinstrap Penguin has an average height range of 27”-30” (68-76 cm), weight of 7-12 lb (3.2-5.3 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Collection of illustrations of Chinstrap Penguins in multiple positions from standing to walking
The Chinstrap Penguin acquires its name from its appearance, a narrow black band of feathers under its head, making it appear as if it were wearing a black helmet. Due to its large harsh call, its other names include ringed penguin, bearded penguin, and stonecracker penguin.

The Chinstrap Penguin has an average height range of 27”-30” (68-76 cm), weight of 7-12 lb (3.2-5.3 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Collection of illustrations of Chinstrap Penguins in multiple positions from standing to walking
Chinstrap Penguin
Height:
27”-30” | 68-76 cm
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
7-12 lb | 3.2-5.3 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Pygoscelis antarcticus
Lifespan
15-20 years

Drawings include:
Chinstrap Penguin standing (side), standing (back), walking (front), standing (front), jumping (side), standing (winter woman)

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Macaroni Penguin
Dimensioned size comparison illustration of a Macaroni Penguin compared to the height of an average standing woman

The Macaroni Penguin is one of the six species of crested penguin, closely related to the Royal Penguin.  The species can be found from the Sub Antarctic to the Antarctic Peninsula. Macaroni penguins consume more marine life annually than any other seabird species, with a diet that consists mostly of crustaceans, such as krill, and small fish. They are distinguished by their yellow crest and the sharp delineation of their white underparts to their black upperparts and face. Since the mid-1970s the macaroni penguin is classified as under a vulnerable conservation status.

The Macaroni Penguin has an average height range of 24”-27” (61-69 cm), weight of 7-14 lb (3.2-6.4 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Collection of illustrations of the Macaroni Penguin in a range of postures viewed from the front, back and side
The Macaroni Penguin is one of the six species of crested penguin, closely related to the Royal Penguin. Macaroni penguins consume more marine life annually than any other seabird species, with a diet that consists mostly of crustaceans, such as krill, and small fish.

The Macaroni Penguin has an average height range of 24”-27” (61-69 cm), weight of 7-14 lb (3.2-6.4 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Collection of illustrations of the Macaroni Penguin in a range of postures viewed from the front, back and side
Macaroni Penguin
Height:
24”-27” | 61-69 cm
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
7-14 lb | 3.2-6.4 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Eudyptes chrysolophus
Lifespan
15-20 years

Drawings include:
Macaroni Penguin standing (side), looking (side), standing (back), walking (side), standing (front), standing (winter woman)

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Turkey
Dimensioned drawing comparing a farm turkey to a human with average lengths and heights

Turkeys are a large game bird native to North America and can be identified by their fan-shaped tail feathers, bald heads and red wattle that hangs from their neck. Female turkeys are referred to as hens, while males are known as toms. Typically domesticated as a poultry food source, turkeys are traditionally famous for serving during festive occasions such as Thanksgiving and Christmas.

The typical Turkey has an overall height of 48.0" (122 cm) and body length of 46.0" (117 cm). An average Turkey weighs between 17-30 lb (7.7-13.6 kg) and has a typical lifespan of 1.5-1.75 years (farm); 10 (wild).

Multiple drawings of a turkey from the front and side showing walking, standing, and pointing
Turkeys are a large game bird native to North America and can be identified by their fan-shaped tail feathers, bald heads and red wattle that hangs from their neck. Turkeys average 4’ | 122 cm in height with weights that average 17 lbs | 7.7 kg in the wild.

The typical Turkey has an overall height of 48.0" (122 cm) and body length of 46.0" (117 cm). An average Turkey weighs between 17-30 lb (7.7-13.6 kg) and has a typical lifespan of 1.5-1.75 years (farm); 10 (wild).

Multiple drawings of a turkey from the front and side showing walking, standing, and pointing
Turkey
Height:
48.0" (4’) | 122 cm
Width:
Length:
46.0" (3’10”) | 117 cm
Depth:
Weight:
17-30 lb | 7.7-13.6 kg
Area:

Uses: Meat

Meleagris gallopavo
Lifespan
1.5-1.75 years (farm); 10 (wild)

Drawings include:
Turkeys side elevation (walking), front, side (standing), side (pointing)

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Gentoo Penguin
Elevation drawing with dimensions of the Gentoo Penguin compared to the size of an average person

The Gentoo penguin, sometimes known as the Johnny penguin, is characterized by the large trumpeting call that it makes with its head thrown back. Other distinguishing factors include the wide white stripe that extends over the top of the penguins’ head, and its bright orange-red bill. Gentoo penguins have the most prominent tails of all penguin species. The species is most closely related to the Adélie penguin and the Chinstrap penguin. They are the third largest penguin species, and the fastest underwater swimmers of all penguin species, reaching speeds of 22 miles per hour.

The Gentoo Penguin has an average height range of 20”-35” (51-90 cm), weight of 11-19 lb (4.9-8.5 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Series of elevation drawings of the Gentoo Penguin in an assortment of postures from the front, back, and side views
The Gentoo penguin is characterized by the large trumpeting call that it makes with its head thrown back. Other distinguishing factors include the wide white stripe that extends over the top of the penguins’ head, its bright orange-red bill, and the most prominent tail of all penguin species.

The Gentoo Penguin has an average height range of 20”-35” (51-90 cm), weight of 11-19 lb (4.9-8.5 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Series of elevation drawings of the Gentoo Penguin in an assortment of postures from the front, back, and side views
Gentoo Penguin
Height:
20”-35” | 51-90 cm
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
11-19 lb | 4.9-8.5 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Pygoscelis papua
Lifespan
15-20 years

Drawings include:
Gentoo Penguin standing (side), looking (side), standing (back), walking (side), standing (front), standing (winter woman)

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Emperor Penguin
Dimensioned elevation illustration comparing the size of the Emperor Penguin to the standing height of a man

The Emperor Penguin is the largest living penguin species and are characterized by the black feathers on their head and back that sharply contrast with a pale-yellow breast, and bright-yellow ear patches.  The Emperor Penguin is unique to Antarctica, and it is the only penguin species that breeds during the Antarctic winter, trekking 31-75 miles over the ice to breeding colonies. Its diet consists of mostly fish and crustaceans, and while hunting, Emperor Penguins can remain submerged under water for around 20 minutes, diving to a depth of 1755 feet. Contrary to popular belief, emperor penguins are not monogamous, as the fidelity rate among the species is 15%.

The Emperor Penguin has an average height range of 43”-51” (110-130 cm), weight of 49-99 lb (22-45 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Series of illustrations of the Emperor Penguin in a range of standing positions
The Emperor Penguin is the largest penguin species and are characterized by the black feathers on their bodies that sharply contrast with a pale-yellow breast, and yellow ear patches. Unique to Antarctica, the Emperor Penguin is the only penguin species that breeds during the Antarctic winter.

The Emperor Penguin has an average height range of 43”-51” (110-130 cm), weight of 49-99 lb (22-45 kg), and typical lifespan of 15-20 years.

Series of illustrations of the Emperor Penguin in a range of standing positions
Emperor Penguin
Height:
43”-51” | 110-130 cm
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
49-99 lb | 22-45 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Aptenodytes forsteri
Lifespan
15-20 years

Drawings include:
Emperor Penguin standing (side), looking (side), standing (back), walking (side), standing (front), lying down (side), standing (arctic man)

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