Cattle, also commonly referred to as cows, are the most commonly domesticated ungulates. Evidence of the domestication of cattle dates back to 6,500 B.C., with cattle being one of the first species domesticated after sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs. Domestic cattle serve a trifold purpose being raised for their meat, milk, and work abilities. In some areas of the world, such as India, cattle are a religious figure and are not raised for slaughter. Cattle are not as commonly raised for their work abilities as they used to be, since they were replace by horses and then later machines; they are now primarily raised for meat or dairy.

What do cows eat?

Cows are herbivores and need of lots of nutrition to produce milk. A cow’s diet consists of grass silage, hay, alfalfa hay, grains, and corn. Typically, barley, oats, minerals, and vitamins are mixed into their food. Cows drink about 25 gallons of water a day.

How many cows can graze per acre?

Generally, a cow and calf pair need 1.5 to 2 acres for adequate grazing, but this depends on the location. Other factors that affect how many cows can graze per acre include the soil fertility, pasture quality, and rain.

Why do cows wear bells?

Cowbells are used by farmers locate and keep track of the cow herd by the sound of the bells. They also may scare away any potential predators. As technology has improved, the use and need of cowbells has become less popular.

Bovines Guides
Browse through our curated Bovines Guides for additional categorizations, tips, details, variations, styles, and histories of Bovines. Guides provide additional insights into the unique properties and shared relationships between elements.
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63.8”-84.3” | 162-214 cm
30.7”-40.6” | 78-103 cm
86”-114” | 218-290 cm
900-2000 lb | 410-910 kg
12-20 years (wild); 20-40 years (captivity)
American Bison
214.000
103.000
290.000
910.000
40.00
36600
3D
American Bison
93.7”-100.8” | 238-256 cm
46.9”-51.2” | 119-130 cm
113”-123” | 286-312 cm
3300-3500 lb | 1500-1590 kg
14-16 years
Ancient Bison
256.000
130.000
312.000
1590.000
16.00
1750
3D
Ancient Bison
Auroch
32800
61.4”-74” | 156-188 cm
24.8”-28.7” | 63-73 cm
105”-128” | 267-325 cm
1550-3300 lb | 700-1500 kg
25-30 years
Auroch
188.000
73.000
325.000
1500.000
30.00
32800
3D
Auroch
Banteng
44700
55.5”-74” | 141-188 cm
22.8”-30.7” | 58-78 cm
89”-118” | 226-299 cm
1300-1764 lb | 590-800 kg
16-20 years (wild); 20-27 years (captivity)
Banteng
188.000
78.000
299.000
800.000
27.00
44700
3D
Banteng
57.1”-61” | 145-155 cm
22.4”-24.4” | 57-62 cm
86”-94” | 218-238 cm
1150-2300 lb | 520-1045 kg (Total)
2-3 years (productive); 10-15 years (natural)
Black Angus Cattle
155.000
62.000
238.000
1045.000
15.00
1900
3D
Black Angus Cattle
Bongo
11250
53.9”-63.4” | 137-161 cm
18.1”-22” | 46-56 cm
66”-77” | 167-196 cm
330-904 lb | 150-410 kg
8-12 years (wild); 18-21 years (captivity)
Bongo
161.000
56.000
196.000
410.000
21.00
11250
3D
Bongo
60.2”-73.6” | 153-187 cm
32.7”-38.6” | 83-98 cm
96”-118” | 245-300 cm
1213-1918 lb | 550-870 kg
20-23 years (wild); 23-29 years (captivity)
Cape Buffalo
187.000
98.000
300.000
870.000
29.00
25600
3D
Cape Buffalo
56.3”-61.4” | 143-156 cm
22.8”-25.2” | 58-64 cm
91”-100” | 230-253 cm
1250-2500 lb | 565-1135 kg (Total)
4-6 years (productive); 15-40 years (natural)
Charolais Cattle
156.000
64.000
253.000
1135.000
40.00
17000
3D
Charolais Cattle
55.9”-71.7” | 142-182 cm
19.7”-25.2” | 50-64 cm
83”-106” | 212-269 cm
661-2072 lb | 300-940 kg
15-20 years (wild); up to 25 years (captivity)
Common Eland
182.000
64.000
269.000
940.000
25.00
5700
3D
Common Eland
48”-62.6” | 122-159 cm
26.8”-34.25” | 68-87 cm
84”-109” | 214-276 cm
496-1290 lb | 225-585 kg
20-25 years (wild); 25-28 years (captivity)
Domestic Yak
159.000
87.000
276.000
585.000
28.00
1500
3D
Domestic Yak
75.2”-81.5” | 191-207 cm
33.1”-35” | 84-89 cm
98”-107” | 250-271 cm
661-2028 lb | 300-920 kg
18-24 years (wild); 25-30 years (captivity)
European Bison
207.000
89.000
271.000
920.000
30.00
14500
3D
European Bison
28.7”-33.1” | 73-84 cm
7.5”-8.7” | 19-22 cm
30.7”-34.6” | 78-88 cm
37-49 lb | 17-22 kg
8-10 years (wild); up to 17 years (captivity)
Four-Horned Antelope
84.000
22.000
88.000
22.000
17.00
3670
3D
Four-Horned Antelope
Gaur
125800
76.8”-98.4” | 195-250 cm
32.7”-41.7” | 83-106 cm
120”-152” | 305-386 cm
1323-3307 lb | 600-1500 kg
20-26 years
Gaur
250.000
106.000
386.000
1500.000
26.00
125800
3D
Gaur
69.7”-83.1” | 177-211 cm
20.1”-24” | 51-61 cm
88”-106” | 224-269 cm
661-2645 lb | 300-1200 kg
15-20 years (wild); 20-25 years (captivity)
Giant Eland
211.000
61.000
269.000
1200.000
25.00
3200
3D
Giant Eland
48”-71.7” | 122-182 cm
12.6”-19.7” | 32-50 cm
54”-81” | 138-206 cm
265-595 lb | 120-270 kg
7-10 years (wild); 15-23 years (captivity)
Greater Kudu
182.000
50.000
206.000
270.000
23.00
11800
3D
Greater Kudu
60.2”-64.6” | 153-164 cm
25.2”-27.6” | 64-70 cm
93”-100” | 236-255 cm
1200-2300 lb | 545-1045 kg (Total)
1-2 years (productive); 12-20 years (natural)
Hereford Cattle
164.000
70.000
255.000
1045.000
20.00
25000
3D
Hereford Cattle
37.4”-48.8” | 95-124 cm
19.3”-25.2” | 49-64 cm
62”-81” | 157-206 cm
900-2000 lb | 410-910 kg (Total)
1-3 years (productive); 15-22 years (natural)
Highland Cattle
124.000
64.000
206.000
910.000
22.00
48000
3D
Highland Cattle
62.2”-67.3” | 158-171 cm
23.6”-25.6” | 60-65 cm
93”-98” | 235-250 cm
1200-1700 lb | 545-770 kg
4-6 years (productive); 15-20 years (natural)
Holstein Friesian Cattle
171.000
65.000
250.000
770.000
20.00
28000
3D
Holstein Friesian Cattle
47.6”-58.3” | 121-148 cm
12.6”-15.75” | 32-40 cm
49”-61” | 125-154 cm
198-342 lb | 90-155 kg
7-15 years (wild); 15-20 years (captivity)
Lesser Kudu
148.000
40.000
154.000
155.000
20.00
4750
3D
Lesser Kudu
Nilgai
119150
57.9”-72.4” | 147-184 cm
17.3”-22.4” | 44-57 cm
68”-85” | 172-217 cm
220-639 lb | 100-290 kg
12-13 years (wild); 20-22 years (captivity)
Nilgai
184.000
57.000
217.000
290.000
22.00
119150
3D
Nilgai
Nyala
31250
42.9”-57.5” | 109-146 cm
13”-17.7” | 33-45 cm
53”-70” | 134-178 cm
121-275 lb | 55-125 kg
11-16 years (wild); 15-19 years (captivity)
Nyala
146.000
45.000
178.000
125.000
19.00
31250
3D
Nyala
61”-64.6” | 155-164 cm
21.3”-22.4” | 54-57 cm
82”-87” | 208-220 cm
1100-1800 lb | 500-815 kg (Total)
1-2 years (productive); 10-15 years (natural)
Red Angus Cattle
164.000
57.000
220.000
815.000
15.00
1800
3D
Red Angus Cattle
Saola
45600
40.2”-45.7” | 102-116 cm
11”-13” | 28-33 cm
46”-52.75” | 117-134 cm
175-220 lb | 80-100 kg
8-11 years (wild); 12-15 years (captivity)
Saola
116.000
33.000
134.000
100.000
15.00
45600
3D
Saola
59”-70” | 150-178 cm
22”-25.6” | 56-65 cm
83”-98” | 212-250 cm
1545-2865 lb | 700-1300 kg (Total)
1-1.5 years (productive); 15-20 years (natural)
Simmental Cattle
178.000
65.000
250.000
1300.000
20.00
19000
3D
Simmental Cattle
32.7”-53.5” | 83-136 cm
9.4”-15” | 24-38 cm
42”-67” | 106-170 cm
88-275 lb | 40-125 kg
10-15 years (wild); 17-22 years (captivity)
Sitatunga
136.000
38.000
170.000
125.000
22.00
7160
3D
Sitatunga
Tamaraw
25100
41.3”-51.2” | 105-130 cm
20.1”-24.4” | 51-62 cm
72”-87” | 183-222 cm
400-660 lb | 180-300 kg
20-25 years (wild); 20-25 years (captivity)
Tamaraw
130.000
62.000
222.000
300.000
25.00
25100
3D
Tamaraw
52.8”-66.1” | 134-168 cm
19.3”-24.4” | 49-62 cm
82”-104” | 209-264 cm
600-2500 lb | 270-1135 kg (Total)
1-5 years (productive); 20-30 years (natural)
Texas Longhorn Cattle
168.000
62.000
264.000
1135.000
30.00
3100
3D
Texas Longhorn Cattle
48.4”-55.5” | 123-141 cm
22.4”-27.6” | 57-70 cm
80”-91” | 203-232 cm
1320-2645 lb | 600-1200 kg
20-25 years
Water Buffalo
141.000
70.000
232.000
1200.000
25.00
112700
3D
Water Buffalo
68.1”-87.4” | 173-222 cm
29.5”-38.6” | 75-98 cm
115”-149” | 292-378 cm
1102-2645 lb | 500-1200 kg
20-25 years (wild); 25-28 years (captivity)
Wild Yak
222.000
98.000
378.000
1200.000
28.00
10600
3D
Wild Yak
Zebu
91150
48.8”-62.2” | 124-158 cm
22.4”-28” | 57-71 cm
71”-89” | 180-226 cm
330-600 lb | 150-270 kg
18-21 years
Zebu
158.000
71.000
226.000
270.000
21.00
91150
3D
Zebu
Four-Horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis)
Dimensioned comparison drawing of the Four-Horned Antelope compared to an average person

The Four-Horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis) is native to India and Nepal and can be round roaming the open forests. The Four-Horned Antelope is a small Antelope species and is the smallest Asian bovid. Four-Horned Antelopes can be seen with a red to yellow-brown coat with specific white patches throughout their slim body, small legs, or short tail. A black hair stripe runs down the interior surface of each leg, with black patches on the muzzle and back of the ears. The Four-Horned Antelope get their name from the male Antelope because of their permanent four horns.

Four-Horned Antelopes have a shoulder height between 22”–25.2” (56-64 cm), body length from 30.7”-34.6” (78-88 cm), standing height of roughly 28.7”-33.1” (73-84 cm), and a body width of 7.5”-8.7” (19-22 cm). The horns of a Four-Horned Antelope are between 1”-4” (2.5-12.7 cm). Weights of Four-Horned Antelope vary between males and females with males weighing between 42-49 lb (19-22 kg) and females from 37-44 lb (17-20 kg). Four-Horned Antelopes have a typical lifespan of 8-10 years in the wild and up to 17 years in captivity.

Set of standing side and front elevation drawings of the Four-Horned Antelope
The Four-Horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis) is native to India and Nepal and can be round roaming the open forests. The Four-Horned Antelope is a small Antelope species and is the smallest Asian bovid. Four-Horned Antelopes can be seen with a red to yellow-brown coat with white patches.

Four-Horned Antelopes have a shoulder height between 22”–25.2” (56-64 cm), body length from 30.7”-34.6” (78-88 cm), standing height of roughly 28.7”-33.1” (73-84 cm), and a body width of 7.5”-8.7” (19-22 cm). The horns of a Four-Horned Antelope are between 1”-4” (2.5-12.7 cm). Weights of Four-Horned Antelope vary between males and females with males weighing between 42-49 lb (19-22 kg) and females from 37-44 lb (17-20 kg). Four-Horned Antelopes have a typical lifespan of 8-10 years in the wild and up to 17 years in captivity.

Set of standing side and front elevation drawings of the Four-Horned Antelope
Four-Horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis)
Height:
28.7”-33.1” | 73-84 cm
Width:
7.5”-8.7” | 19-22 cm
Length:
30.7”-34.6” | 78-88 cm
Depth:
Withers Height
22”–25.2” | 56-64 cm
Weight:
37-49 lb | 17-22 kg
Area:

Horn Length: 1”-4” | 2.5-12.7 cm

Weight (Male): 42-49 lb | 19-22 kg

Weight (Female): 37-44 lb | 17-20 kg

Scientific Name
Tetracerus quadricornis
Lifespan
8-10 years (wild); up to 17 years (captivity)

Drawings include:

Four-Horned Antelope side elevation, front, back

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Giant Eland (Taurotragus derbianus)
Scale illustration of an average Giant Eland compared to a human

In the North Savanna from Senegal to the Nile, the Giant or Derby Eland (Taurozugus Derbianus) lives in forests filled with the widest leaves of the Doka tree. Giant Eland is herbivores which means they consume fruit, leaves, and branches. They typically enter tiny groups of 15-25 when traveling. Giant Elands are not territorial, and they have a wide range of homes. Naturally, they are cautious and vigilant which makes them difficult to approach. They are quick and can run up to 70 km/h (43mph) which makes speed a viable option rather than using their horns for defense against predators.

Giant Elands have a shoulder height between 59.1”-70.9” (150-180 cm), body length from 88”-106” (224-269 cm), standing height of roughly 69.7”-83.1” (177-211 cm), and a body width of 20.1”-24” (51-61 cm). The horns of a Giant Eland are between 26”-48” (66-121.9 cm). Weights of Giant Eland vary between males and females with males weighing between 882-2645 lb (400-1200 kg) and females from 661-1323 lb (300-600 kg). Giant Elands have a typical lifespan of 15-20 years in the wild and 20-25 years in captivity.

Collection of scaled drawings of Giant Eland in various standing poses
In the North Savanna from Senegal to the Nile, the Giant or Derby Eland (Taurozugus Derbianus) lives in forests filled with the widest leaves of the Doka tree. Giant Eland is herbivores which means they consume fruit, leaves, and branches. They typically enter tiny groups of 15-25 when traveling.

Giant Elands have a shoulder height between 59.1”-70.9” (150-180 cm), body length from 88”-106” (224-269 cm), standing height of roughly 69.7”-83.1” (177-211 cm), and a body width of 20.1”-24” (51-61 cm). The horns of a Giant Eland are between 26”-48” (66-121.9 cm). Weights of Giant Eland vary between males and females with males weighing between 882-2645 lb (400-1200 kg) and females from 661-1323 lb (300-600 kg). Giant Elands have a typical lifespan of 15-20 years in the wild and 20-25 years in captivity.

Collection of scaled drawings of Giant Eland in various standing poses
Giant Eland (Taurotragus derbianus)
Height:
69.7”-83.1” | 177-211 cm
Width:
20.1”-24” | 51-61 cm
Length:
88”-106” | 224-269 cm
Depth:
Withers Height
59.1”-70.9” | 150-180 cm
Weight:
661-2645 lb | 300-1200 kg
Area:

Horn Length: 26”-48” | 66-121.9 cm

Weight (Male): 882-2645 lb | 400-1200 kg
Weight (Female): 661-1323 lb | 300-600 kg

Scientific Name
Taurotragus derbianus
Lifespan
15-20 years (wild); 20-25 years (captivity)

Drawings include:

Giant Eland side elevation, front, back, lying down

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Ancient Bison (Bison antiquus)
Comparison illustration of the size of a Ancient Bison to a typical person

The Ancient Bison (Bison antiquus) is an extinct Bison species and roamed North America roughly 10,000 years ago. The Ancient Bison was one of the and largest herbivores during that time and is a direct ancestor of the living American Buffalo. Ancient Bison's towered over their current ancestors with their larger distinctive hump and elongated horns. Ancient Bison have a thick dark brown fur coat with patchy light brown layers on their ridge. The Ancient Bison migrated from modern-day Siberia into Alaska then moved its way south roaming all North America.

Ancient Bisons had a shoulder height between 82.7”-89.4” (210-227 cm), body length from 113”-123” (286-312 cm), standing height of roughly 93.7”-100.8” (238-256 cm), and a body width of 46.9”-51.2” (119-130 cm). The horns of a Ancient Bison were between 36”-42” (91.4-106.7 cm). Ancient Bison weighed between 3300-3500 lb (1500-1590 kg) and had an estimated typical lifespan of 14-16 years.

Series of side and front elevation illustrations of the Ancient Bison
The Ancient Bison (Bison antiquus) is an extinct Bison species and roamed North America roughly 10,000 years ago. The Ancient Bison was one of the and largest herbivores during that time and is a direct ancestor of the living American Buffalo. Ancient Bison's towered over their current ancestors.

Ancient Bisons had a shoulder height between 82.7”-89.4” (210-227 cm), body length from 113”-123” (286-312 cm), standing height of roughly 93.7”-100.8” (238-256 cm), and a body width of 46.9”-51.2” (119-130 cm). The horns of a Ancient Bison were between 36”-42” (91.4-106.7 cm). Ancient Bison weighed between 3300-3500 lb (1500-1590 kg) and had an estimated typical lifespan of 14-16 years.

Series of side and front elevation illustrations of the Ancient Bison
Ancient Bison (Bison antiquus)
Height:
93.7”-100.8” | 238-256 cm
Width:
46.9”-51.2” | 119-130 cm
Length:
113”-123” | 286-312 cm
Depth:
Withers Height
82.7”-89.4” | 210-227 cm
Weight:
3300-3500 lb | 1500-1590 kg
Area:

Horn Length: 36”-42” | 91.4-106.7 cm

Scientific Name
Bison antiquus
Lifespan
14-16 years

Drawings include:

Ancient Bison side elevation, front

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Black Angus Cattle
Scale illustration of an average Black Angus Cattle compared to a human

The Black Angus, a pure, pollinated beef cattle breed, also known for many years as ”Aberdeen Angus”. The origin of the Black Angus is unclear, but the breed is closely related to the curly-coated Galloway and is local to the Northeastern parts of Scotland. Often referred to as the oldest breed in Britain. Characteristic of the Black Angus is the black color, the pollinated eyes, the small and low neck. Angus is a cattle breed of the highest rank and, for years, purebred or crossbred Angus steers have occupied prominent positions of distinction at the leading fat-stock shows in the United Kingdom and the United States.

Black Angus Cattle have a shoulder height between 53.1”-57.1” (135-145 cm), body length from 86”-94” (218-238 cm), standing height of roughly 57.1”-61” (145-155 cm), and a body width of 22.4”-24.4” (57-62 cm). Weights of Black Angus Cattle vary between males and females with males weighing between 1850-2300 lb (840-1045 kg) and females from 1150-1250 lb (520-565 kg). Black Angus Cattle have a typical productive lifespan of 2-3 years and natural lifespan of 10-15 years.

Collection of scaled drawings of Black Angus Cattle in various standing poses
The Black Angus, a pure, pollinated beef cattle breed, also known for many years as ”Aberdeen Angus”. The origin of the Black Angus is unclear, but the breed is closely related to the curly-coated Galloway and is local to the Northeastern parts of Scotland.

Black Angus Cattle have a shoulder height between 53.1”-57.1” (135-145 cm), body length from 86”-94” (218-238 cm), standing height of roughly 57.1”-61” (145-155 cm), and a body width of 22.4”-24.4” (57-62 cm). Weights of Black Angus Cattle vary between males and females with males weighing between 1850-2300 lb (840-1045 kg) and females from 1150-1250 lb (520-565 kg). Black Angus Cattle have a typical productive lifespan of 2-3 years and natural lifespan of 10-15 years.

Collection of scaled drawings of Black Angus Cattle in various standing poses
Black Angus Cattle
Height:
57.1”-61” | 145-155 cm
Width:
22.4”-24.4” | 57-62 cm
Length:
86”-94” | 218-238 cm
Depth:
Withers Height
53.1”-57.1” | 135-145 cm
Weight:
1150-2300 lb | 520-1045 kg (Total)
Area:

Weight (Male): 1850-2300 lb | 840-1045 kg

Weight (Female): 1150-1250 lb | 520-565 kg

Scientific Name
Bos taurus primigenius
Lifespan
2-3 years (productive); 10-15 years (natural)

Drawings include:

Black Angus Cattle side elevation, front, back, lying down

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Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer)
Comparison illustration of the size of a Cape Buffalo to a typical person

The African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is regionally located in Southern and Eastern Africa. Commonly names Cape Buffalo, they are part of a large sub-Saharan African bovine family. The distinctive feature of the adult African Buffalo is the horns: they have fused bases and have a continuous bone shield over the top of the head known as the ”boss”. African Buffalos are known to be one of the most aggressive species on the African continent and it tramples and killed over 200 people per year according to some reports. Its erratic temperament ensures that they have never been domesticated. Other than lions and crocodiles, African Buffalos have very few predators.

Cape Buffalos have a shoulder height between 55.1”-68.9” (140-175 cm), body length from 96”-118” (245-300 cm), standing height of roughly 60.2”-73.6” (153-187 cm), and a body width of 32.7”-38.6” (83-98 cm). The horns of a Cape Buffalo are between 36”-67” (91.4-170.2 cm). Weights of Cape Buffalo vary between males and females with males weighing between 1433-1918 lb (650-870 kg) and females from 1213-1543 lb (550-700 kg). Cape Buffalos have a typical lifespan of 20-23 years in the wild and 23-29 years in captivity.

Series of side and front elevation illustrations of the Cape Buffalo
The African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is regionally located in Southern and Eastern Africa. Commonly names Cape Buffalo, they are part of a large sub-Saharan African bovine family. The distinctive feature of the adult African Buffalo is the horns: they have fused bases and a continuous bone shield.

Cape Buffalos have a shoulder height between 55.1”-68.9” (140-175 cm), body length from 96”-118” (245-300 cm), standing height of roughly 60.2”-73.6” (153-187 cm), and a body width of 32.7”-38.6” (83-98 cm). The horns of a Cape Buffalo are between 36”-67” (91.4-170.2 cm). Weights of Cape Buffalo vary between males and females with males weighing between 1433-1918 lb (650-870 kg) and females from 1213-1543 lb (550-700 kg). Cape Buffalos have a typical lifespan of 20-23 years in the wild and 23-29 years in captivity.

Series of side and front elevation illustrations of the Cape Buffalo
Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer)
Height:
60.2”-73.6” | 153-187 cm
Width:
32.7”-38.6” | 83-98 cm
Length:
96”-118” | 245-300 cm
Depth:
Withers Height
55.1”-68.9” | 140-175 cm
Weight:
1213-1918 lb | 550-870 kg
Area:

Horn Length: 36”-67” | 91.4-170.2 cm
Weight (Male): 1433-1918 lb | 650-870 kg

Weight (Female): 1213-1543 lb | 550-700 kg

Scientific Name
Syncerus caffer
Lifespan
20-23 years (wild); 23-29 years (captivity)

Drawings include:

Cape Buffalo side elevation, front, back, lying down

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