Camelids | Camelidae
Camelids are a biological family of herbivorous even-toed ungulates characterized by their large bodies, slender necks and long legs. Found in remote locations from the Middle East, Northern Africa, Central Asia, and the Andes region in South America, camelids have evolved as separate distinct species adapted to their harsh individual contexts. The smaller South American camelids, which includes the Llama, Guanaco, Alpaca, and Vicuña, are characterized by their desirable thick wool coats and toes for gripping rock terrain. In the Afro-Asian contexts, camelids such as the Bactrian camel and the Dromedary camel have developed to survive their almost waterless habitats.
The fiber that camelids produce is actually their hair and each type of fiber has its own characteristics. The camelids family includes alpacas, llamas, vicunas, and guanacos. The vicuna fiber is sought for its softness and fineness, while the alpaca fiber is desired for its quality and quantity. Camelid fiber was used mostly in South American, specifically Andean textiles.
Camelids are not true ruminants because although they both have multiple compartments in their stomachs, ruminants have four compartments in their stomachs while camelids have three. The four compartments of a ruminant’s stomach are called the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum. The three compartments of a camelid’s stomach are called C-1, C-2, and C-3. Ruminant animals include cattle, sheep, buffalo, deer, and goats.
Camelids spit for a variety of reasons and can spit up to 10 feet away. A female camelid may spit at an interested male to let him know she is not interested, while both female and males may spit to keep others away from their food. Spitting is also used to warn possible aggressors. Some camelids may spit with little provocation.