Squamates | Squamata

Squamates | Squamata

Description
Description

Squamates, belonging to the order Squamata, are a diverse group of reptiles that include snakes, lizards, and amphisbaenians (worm lizards). With over 10,000 species, they are the largest order of reptiles, characterized by their scaled skin, movable quadrate bones, which enable them to open their jaws wide, and a unique joint in the skull allowing for increased flexibility. Squamates inhabit a variety of ecosystems across the globe, from rainforests to deserts. They evolved over 200 million years ago in the Mesozoic era, diversifying into myriad forms and sizes. Their ability to shed their skin and some possessing venom, highlight their evolutionary adaptations.

Anatomy
Anatomy

Squamates, encompassing lizards and snakes, boast a unique anatomy adapted for survival. Their bodies are covered in overlapping scales made of keratin, providing protection and aiding in moisture retention. Most squamates are quadrupedal, with lizards using four limbs for agile movement, while snakes are limbless, propelling themselves with muscular undulations. They lack vocal cords for speech but communicate through hisses, body language, and pheromones. Squamates possess keen senses; many lizards have sharp vision, and snakes use forked tongues to taste-smell the environment via the Jacobson's organ. These features, along with the ability to shed their skin, exemplify their biological adaptability.

Human Interaction
Human Interaction

The relationship between humans and squamates, which include snakes and lizards, is varied. Historically, many cultures have revered these creatures, incorporating them into mythology and symbolism. In modern times, some squamates have become popular pets, admired for their unique characteristics. Conversely, others, particularly snakes, are often feared due to misconceptions and their portrayal as villains in pop culture, like in the "Harry Potter" series.

Conservation efforts for squamates are crucial, as habitat loss and climate change pose significant threats. Organizations worldwide work to protect their diverse species, emphasizing the ecological roles they play in controlling pests and maintaining balance.

Common Questions
Common Questions
What characteristics make a Squamata?

The characteristics that make a Squamata unique include having a scaled skin that distinguishes them as well as having horn-like scales or shields. Other characteristics of squamates include having movable quadrate bones that make it possible for them to move their upper jaw in accordance with the neurocranium.

How are Squamata adapted to their environments?

Squamata are adapted to their environments by regulating their body temperature through their exterior environment, a process known as Ectothermy. When it is cold, they seek warmer environments and when it is hot they will seek out a cool environment. This allows them to go sometimes months without feeding.

How many families of Squamata are there?

There are 60 Squamata families that include more than 10,900 species of squamates. The squamata families include the Amphisbaenidae, Cadeidae, Dibamidae, Gekkonidae, and Sphaerodactylidae families. Other Squamata families include the Chamaeleonidae, Iguanidae, Anguidae, and Elapidae. The families are then categorized into the infraorders of Amphisbaenia, Gekkota, Iguania, Lacertoidea, Anguimorpha, Scincoidea, Alethinophidia, and Scolecophidia.

.39”-.55” | 1-1.4 cm
.6”-.8” | 1.5-2 cm
3”-3.5” | 7.5-9 cm
1.8-3.5 oz | 50-100 g
10-25 years
Armadillo Lizard
1.400
2.000
9.000
0.100
25.00
53600
GUIDE
3D
Armadillo Lizard
3.15”-5.9” | 8-15 cm
6.5’-12’ | 1.98-3.66 m
6.6-11 lb | 3-5 kg
12-18 years
Atlantic Bushmaster
15.000
366.000
5.000
18.00
3205
GUIDE
3D
Atlantic Bushmaster
1.2”-2.75” | 3-7 cm
2’-5’ | .61-1.52 m
2.6-6.6 lb | 1.2-3 kg
30-50 years
Ball Python
7.000
152.000
3.000
50.00
227400
GUIDE
3D
Ball Python
2”-3.9” | 5-10 cm
6.5’-14’ | 1.98-4.27 m
2.2-3.5 lb | 1-1.6 kg
10-20 years
Black Mamba
10.000
427.000
1.600
20.00
437350
GUIDE
3D
Black Mamba
4.37”-6.5” | 11.1-16.5 cm
3.94”-5.91” | 10-15 cm
40”-60” | 101.6-152.4 cm
25-31 lb | 11-14 kg
25-69 years
Blue Iguana
16.500
15.000
152.400
14.000
69.00
34600
GUIDE
3D
Blue Iguana
3.5”-8.7” | 9-22 cm
8’-26’ | 2.44-7.92 m
15-165 lb | 6.8-75 kg
20-28 years
Burmese Python
22.000
792.000
75.000
28.00
72500
GUIDE
3D
Burmese Python
1.2”-2” | 3-5 cm
3’-6.5’ | .91-1.98 m
1-3.3 lb | .45-1.5 kg
10-20 years
California Kingsnake
5.000
198.000
1.500
20.00
16400
GUIDE
3D
California Kingsnake
1.6”-3.15” | 4-8 cm
6.5’-10’ | 1.98-3.05 m
26.4-33 lb | 12-15 kg
15-30 years
Carpet Python
8.000
305.000
15.000
30.00
27200
GUIDE
3D
Carpet Python
.35”-.71” | .9-1.8 cm
.4”-.83” | 1-2.1 cm
3”-5.9” | 7.5-15 cm
1.6-2.5 oz | 45-70 g
3-8 years
Common House Gecko
1.800
2.100
15.000
0.070
8.00
136000
GUIDE
3D
Common House Gecko
.71”-1.1” | 1.8-2.8 cm
.98”-1.38” | 2.5-3.5 cm
7.1”-11” | 18-28 cm
1.6-3 oz | 45-85 g
10-20 years
Common Leopard Gecko
2.800
3.500
28.000
0.085
20.00
300000
GUIDE
3D
Common Leopard Gecko
1.2”-2” | 3-5 cm
24”-40” | .61-1.02 m
.22-.77 lb | .1-.35 kg
10-30 years
Copperhead
5.000
102.000
0.350
30.00
227700
GUIDE
3D
Copperhead
.6”-1.4” | 1.5-3.5 cm
2’-6’ | .61-1.83 m
1-2 lb | .45-.9 kg
10-23 years
Corn Snake
3.500
183.000
0.900
23.00
255000
GUIDE
3D
Corn Snake
.67”-1.06” | 1.7-2.7 cm
.79”-1.34” | 2-3.4 cm
5.9”-9.8” | 15-25 cm
1.2-1.9 oz | 35-55 g
5-20 years
Crested Gecko
2.700
3.400
25.000
0.055
20.00
139300
GUIDE
3D
Crested Gecko
1.1”-1.73” | 2.8-4.4 cm
1.06”-1.65” | 2.7-4.2 cm
10”-16” | 25.4-40.6 cm
2-3 oz | 57-85 g
7-14 years
Desert Iguana
4.400
4.200
40.600
0.085
14.00
6300
GUIDE
3D
Desert Iguana
1.97”-2.4” | 5-6.1 cm
3”-3.62” | 7.6-9.2 cm
20”-24” | 50.8-61 cm
.8-1.2 lb | .38-.55 kg
6-18 years
Eastern Bearded Dragon
6.100
9.200
61.000
0.550
18.00
5100
GUIDE
3D
Eastern Bearded Dragon
1”-1.4” | 2.5-3.5 cm
3.5’-6’ | 1.07-1.83 m
1.1-4.9 lb | .5-2.2 kg
10-34 years
Eastern Black Rat Snake
3.500
183.000
2.200
34.00
1200
GUIDE
3D
Eastern Black Rat Snake
2”-3.9” | 5-10 cm
6.5’-14’ | 1.98-4.27 m
2.2-3.3 lb | 1-1.5 kg
12-19 years
Eastern Green Mamba
10.000
427.000
1.500
19.00
3950
GUIDE
3D
Eastern Green Mamba
1.8”-2.75” | 4.5-7 cm
4’-6’ | 1.22-1.83 m
.9-2 lb | .4-.9 kg
15-20 years
Emerald Tree Boa
7.000
183.000
0.900
20.00
30100
GUIDE
3D
Emerald Tree Boa
3.7”-4.9” | 9.5-12.5 cm
4’-6’ | 1.22-1.83 m
17.6-24.3 lb | 8-11 kg
13-20 years
Gaboon Viper
12.500
183.000
11.000
20.00
140400
GUIDE
3D
Gaboon Viper
3.5”-7.9” | 9-20 cm
10’-30’ | 3.05-9.14 m
100-550 lb | 45-250 kg
10-32 years
Green Anaconda
20.000
914.000
250.000
32.00
77400
GUIDE
3D
Green Anaconda
.35”-.83” | .9-2.1 cm
.31”-.71” | .8-1.8 cm
4”-9” | 10.2-22.9 cm
.07-.21 oz | 2-6 g
3-8 years
Green Anole
2.100
1.800
22.900
0.006
8.00
65000
GUIDE
3D
Green Anole
2.2”-4.45” | 5.6-11.3 cm
2.24”-4.49” | 5.7-11.4 cm
18”-36” | 46-91 cm
7-17.6 oz | .2-.5 kg
5-10 years
Green Basilisk
11.300
11.400
91.000
0.500
10.00
4900
GUIDE
3D
Green Basilisk
1.46”-2.05” | 3.7-5.2 cm
1.18”-1.69” | 3-4.3 cm
12”-17” | 30.5-43.2 cm
2.6-8.8 lb | 1.2-4 kg
12-25 years
Green Iguana
5.200
4.300
43.200
4.000
25.00
42000
GUIDE
3D
Green Iguana
1.6”-2.4” | 4-6 cm
5’-6.5’ | 1.52-1.98 m
2.4-3.5 lb | 1.1-1.6 kg
12-20 years
Green Tree Python
6.000
198.000
1.600
20.00
58000
GUIDE
3D
Green Tree Python
1”-1.4” | 2.5-3.5 cm
3.5’-5’ | 1.07-1.52 m
4.4-6.6 lb | 2-3 kg
24-32 years
Indian Cobra
3.500
152.000
3.000
32.00
38100
GUIDE
3D
Indian Cobra
3”-3.9” | 7.5-10 cm
6’-9’ | 1.83-2.74 m
2.2-4.4 lb | 1-2 kg
10-20 years
Inland Taipan
10.000
274.000
2.000
20.00
79900
GUIDE
3D
Inland Taipan
3.15”-5.5” | 8-14 cm
10’-18’ | 3.05-5.49 m
11-15 lb | 5-6.8 kg
15-23 years
King Cobra
14.000
549.000
6.800
23.00
353900
GUIDE
3D
King Cobra
14.17”-17.72” | 36-45 cm
13.78”-17.32” | 35-44 cm
8’-10’ | 2.43-3.05 m
150-300 lb | 68-136 kg
10-30 years
Komodo Dragon
45.000
44.000
305.000
136.000
30.00
452200
GUIDE
3D
Komodo Dragon
.63”-1.26” | 1.6-3.2 cm
.67”-1.3” | 1.7-3.3 cm
6”-12” | 15.2-30.5 cm
.7-3 oz | 20-85 g
10-20 years
Mexican Alligator Lizard
3.200
3.300
30.500
0.085
20.00
11600
GUIDE
3D
Mexican Alligator Lizard
2.44”-3.78” | 6.2-9.6 cm
1.89”-3” | 4.8-7.6 cm
13”-20” | 33-50.8 cm
2.1-6.3 oz | 60-180 g
3-7 years
Panther Chameleon
9.600
7.600
50.800
0.180
7.00
53200
GUIDE
3D
Panther Chameleon
2.4”-5.9” | 6-15 cm
5’-21’ | 1.52-6.4 m
165-385 lb | 75-175 kg
15-30 years
Reticulated Python
15.000
640.000
175.000
30.00
75800
GUIDE
3D
Reticulated Python
2.95”-8.46” | 7.5-21.5 cm
1.89”-5.31” | 4.8-13.5 cm
20”-54” | 50.8-137 cm
10-20 lb | 4.5-9 kg
10-20 years
Rhino Iguana
21.500
13.500
137.000
9.000
20.00
7800
GUIDE
3D
Rhino Iguana
.4”-.8” | 1-2 cm
16”-38” | 41-97 cm
2.2-3.3 lb | 1-1.5 kg
9-11 years
Ribbon Snake
2.000
97.000
1.500
11.00
21005
GUIDE
3D
Ribbon Snake
.6”-1.2” | 1.5-3 cm
17”-36” | 43-91 cm
.8-1 lb | .36-.45 kg
18-31 years
Rosy Boa
3.000
91.000
0.450
31.00
25030
GUIDE
3D
Rosy Boa
.4”-.6” | 1-1.5 cm
22”-32” | 56-81 cm
.03-.07 lb | 15-30 g
5-15 years
Rough Green Snake
1.500
81.000
0.030
15.00
13300
GUIDE
3D
Rough Green Snake
6.73”-8.3” | 17.1-21.1 cm
6.14”-7.48” | 15.6-19 cm
4’-5’ | 122-152 cm
11-13.2 lb | 5-6 kg
8-20 years
Savannah Monitor
21.100
19.000
152.400
6.000
20.00
35300
GUIDE
3D
Savannah Monitor
.4”-1” | 1-2.5 cm
2’-4’ | .61-1.22 m
2-5 lb | .9-2.3 kg
7-15 years
Texas Coral Snake
2.500
122.000
2.300
15.00
7700
GUIDE
3D
Texas Coral Snake
1.26”-1.69” | 3.2-4.3 cm
1.61”-2.4” | 4.1-6.1 cm
6”-8.5” | 15.2-21.6 cm
1.8-3.4 oz | 50-95 g
12-20 years
Thorny Dragon
4.300
6.100
21.600
0.095
20.00
7700
GUIDE
3D
Thorny Dragon
.59”-1.38” | 1.5-3.5 cm
.83”-1.65” | 2.1-4.2 cm
8”-16” | 20.3-40.6 cm
4.9-14.1 oz | 140-400 g
7-15 years
Tokay Gecko
3.500
4.200
40.600
0.400
15.00
50100
GUIDE
3D
Tokay Gecko
2.4”-4.33” | 6.1-11 cm
2.36”-3.94” | 6-10 cm
14”-24” | 35.6-61 cm
3-6 oz | 85-170 g
3-8 years
Veiled Chameleon
11.000
10.000
61.000
0.170
8.00
39600
GUIDE
3D
Veiled Chameleon
.8”-1.4” | 2-3.5 cm
2’-4’ | .61-1.22 m
.55-1.3 lb | .25-.6 kg
20-25 years
Water Moccasin
3.500
122.000
0.600
25.00
191000
GUIDE
3D
Water Moccasin
1.4”-2.75” | 3.5-7 cm
3’-7’ | .91-2.13 m
2.6-14.8 lb | 1.2-6.7 kg
15-26 years
Western Diamondback Rattlesnake
7.000
213.000
6.700
26.00
20800
GUIDE
3D
Western Diamondback Rattlesnake
Green Tree Python (Morelia viridis)
Scale illustration of an average Green Tree Python compared to other snake species

The Green Tree Python (Morelia Viridis) may be confused with the Emerald tree boa because of the way they display similar position when resting on a tree, however, Green tree pythons belong to the family Pythonidae, are nocturnal hunters with acute sight and may use labial or pits or caudal luring to attract prey unlike the former. They also lay and incubate their eggs. The Green tree python is an arboreal dwelling snake and native to the islands of New Guinea and those of Indonesia usually with a bright green, slim body, long tail, large well-defined head, large and angular snout with females being heavier than males. They prefer rainforests, shrubs, trees, and bushes.

The Green Tree Python has an overall length between 5’-6.5’ | 1.52-1.98 m, body width of roughly 1.6”-2.4” | 4-6 cm, and weight from 2.4-3.5 lb | 1.1-1.6 kg. The typical lifespan of the Green Tree Python is between 12-20 years.

Series of top view illustrations of the Green Tree Python
The Green Tree Python (Morelia Viridis) may be confused with the Emerald tree boa because of the way they display similar position when resting on a tree, however, Green tree pythons belong to the family Pythonidae, and are nocturnal hunters with acute sight.

The Green Tree Python has an overall length between 5’-6.5’ | 1.52-1.98 m, body width of roughly 1.6”-2.4” | 4-6 cm, and weight from 2.4-3.5 lb | 1.1-1.6 kg. The typical lifespan of the Green Tree Python is between 12-20 years.

Series of top view illustrations of the Green Tree Python
Green Tree Python (Morelia viridis)
Height:
Width:
1.6”-2.4” | 4-6 cm
Length:
5’-6.5’ | 1.52-1.98 m
Depth:
Weight:
2.4-3.5 lb | 1.1-1.6 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Morelia viridis
Lifespan
12-20 years

Drawings include:

Green Tree Python top view (assorted)

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Carpet Python (Morelia spilota)
Comparison illustration of the size of a Carpet Python to other snakes

Commonly found in Oceanian Islands like Australia, Solomon's Island, and Papua New Guinea, the Carpet python (Morelia spilota) shows maternal care by not only incubating eggs but also protecting them. Carpet pythons belong to the family Pythonidae, and are also called diamond pythons, with females being larger and heavier than males. A triangular head with a body either in black, olive, white with gold markings makes it suitable in habitats such as rainforest, grassland, and woodlands, though it may also prefer semi-arboreal conditions. The snake is popular among ophidiophilia, and its name comes from its oriental carpet pattern on its skin.

The Carpet Python has an overall length between 6.5’-10’ (1.98-3.05 m), body width of roughly 1.6”-3.15” (4-8 cm), and weight from 26.4-33 lb (12-15 kg). The typical lifespan of the Carpet Python is between 15-30 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Carpet Python in various poses
Commonly found in Oceanian Islands like Australia, Solomon's Island, and Papua New Guinea, the Carpet python (Morelia spilota) shows maternal care by not only incubating eggs but also protecting them. Carpet pythons belong to the family Pythonidae and are also called diamond pythons,.

The Carpet Python has an overall length between 6.5’-10’ (1.98-3.05 m), body width of roughly 1.6”-3.15” (4-8 cm), and weight from 26.4-33 lb (12-15 kg). The typical lifespan of the Carpet Python is between 15-30 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Carpet Python in various poses
Carpet Python (Morelia spilota)
Height:
Width:
1.6”-3.15” | 4-8 cm
Length:
6.5’-10’ | 1.98-3.05 m
Depth:
Weight:
26.4-33 lb | 12-15 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Morelia spilota
Lifespan
15-30 years

Drawings include:

Carpet Python top view (assorted)

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Corn Snake (Pantherophis guttatus)
Scale illustration of an average Corn Snake compared to other snake species

The Corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) looks like the Copperhead, though it has a slender build, brighter color, and lacks a heat-sensing pit. Its name comes from the color of its belly, resembling variegated corn kernels or their preference for grain stores. The corn snake belongs to the family Colubridae, native to North America, and prefers forest openings, overgrown fields, trees, and abandoned houses or farms. These diurnal snakes are also called red rat snakes and do not take care of their eggs and prefer both ground and arboreal dwellings. Moderate size, docile nature, attractive patterns mixed with non preference to biting makes them an ideal pet snake.

The Corn Snake has an overall length between 2’-6’ (.61-1.83 m), body width of roughly .6”-1.4” (1.5-3.5 cm), and weight from 1-2 lb (.45-.9 kg). The typical lifespan of the Corn Snake is between 10-23 years.

Series of top view illustrations of the Corn Snake
The Corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) looks like the Copperhead, though it has a slender build, brighter color, and lacks a heat-sensing pit. Its name comes from the color of its belly, resembling variegated corn kernels or their preference for grain stores.

The Corn Snake has an overall length between 2’-6’ (.61-1.83 m), body width of roughly .6”-1.4” (1.5-3.5 cm), and weight from 1-2 lb (.45-.9 kg). The typical lifespan of the Corn Snake is between 10-23 years.

Series of top view illustrations of the Corn Snake
Corn Snake (Pantherophis guttatus)
Height:
Width:
.6”-1.4” | 1.5-3.5 cm
Length:
2’-6’ | .61-1.83 m
Depth:
Weight:
1-2 lb | .45-.9 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Pantherophis guttatus
Lifespan
10-23 years

Drawings include:

Corn Snake top view (assorted)

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus)
Comparison illustration of the size of a Veiled Chameleon to other lizards

The veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) is a kind of chameleon endemic to Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Its common habitats range from mountains to valleys, living in the treetops and utilizing its tail and toes to grip onto branches. Its most prominent feature is a cone-like growth called a casque located on its neck that acts as a water catcher. It typically has a blue-green coloration with color changes occurring due to reproduction, stress, etc. The brightness of its color is also dependent on the sex of the chameleon as well as its social status.

The Veiled Chameleon has an overall length between 14”-24” (35.6-61 cm), body width of 2.36”-3.94” (6-10 cm), body height of 2.4”-4.33” (6.1-11 cm), and weight between 3-6 oz (85-170 g). The typical lifespan of the Veiled Chameleon is between 3-8 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Veiled Chameleon in various poses
The veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) is a kind of chameleon endemic to Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Its common habitats range from mountains to valleys, living in the treetops and utilizing its tail and toes to grip onto branches. Its most prominent feature is a cone-like growth called a casque.

The Veiled Chameleon has an overall length between 14”-24” (35.6-61 cm), body width of 2.36”-3.94” (6-10 cm), body height of 2.4”-4.33” (6.1-11 cm), and weight between 3-6 oz (85-170 g). The typical lifespan of the Veiled Chameleon is between 3-8 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Veiled Chameleon in various poses
Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus)
Height:
2.4”-4.33” | 6.1-11 cm
Width:
2.36”-3.94” | 6-10 cm
Length:
14”-24” | 35.6-61 cm
Depth:
Weight:
3-6 oz | 85-170 g
Area:
Scientific Name
Chamaeleo calyptratus
Lifespan
3-8 years

Drawings include:

Veiled Chameleon top view, side

Downloads

2D Downloads

3D Downloads

Mexican Alligator Lizard (Abronia graminea)
Comparison drawing of the Mexican Alligator Lizard compared to other lizards

The mexican alligator lizard (Abronia graminea), as the name suggests, is native to the highlands of Mexico. It is also called the arboreal alligator lizard due to it commonly residing in trees, having a preference for cloud forests. It also inhabits bromeliads as they provide a preferable humid climate as well as water and shelter. The characteristics of a mexican alligator lizard include a triangular head, yellow snout, and an overall blue-green coloration with dark bands running across its body. It is diurnal, has a diet consisting of insects, and is able to give birth to live young.

The Mexican Alligator Lizard has an overall length between 6”-12” (15.2-30.5 cm), body width of .67”-1.3” (1.7-3.3 cm), body height of .63”-1.26” (1.6-3.2 cm), and weight between .7-3 oz (20-85 g). The typical lifespan of the Mexican Alligator Lizard is between 10-20 years.

Set of scaled top and elevation drawings of the Mexican Alligator Lizard
The mexican alligator lizard (Abronia graminea), as the name suggests, is native to the highlands of Mexico. It is also called the arboreal alligator lizard due to it commonly residing in trees, having a preference for cloud forests. It also inhabits bromeliads as they provide a preferable climate.

The Mexican Alligator Lizard has an overall length between 6”-12” (15.2-30.5 cm), body width of .67”-1.3” (1.7-3.3 cm), body height of .63”-1.26” (1.6-3.2 cm), and weight between .7-3 oz (20-85 g). The typical lifespan of the Mexican Alligator Lizard is between 10-20 years.

Set of scaled top and elevation drawings of the Mexican Alligator Lizard
Mexican Alligator Lizard (Abronia graminea)
Height:
.63”-1.26” | 1.6-3.2 cm
Width:
.67”-1.3” | 1.7-3.3 cm
Length:
6”-12” | 15.2-30.5 cm
Depth:
Weight:
.7-3 oz | 20-85 g
Area:
Scientific Name
Abronia graminea
Lifespan
10-20 years

Drawings include:

Mexican Alligator Lizard top view, side

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